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Table 19.- Per cent of males 16 years of age or over in each specified industry, by general

nativity and race of individual-Continued.

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Table 20.-- Per cent of females 16 years of age or over in each specified industry, by general

nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (The main headings used in this table follow the classifications of the United States Census with these

modifications: General Labor is here separate from Domestic and Personal Service; Fishing, Mining, and Quarrying are each separate from Manufacturing and Mechanical Pursuits; Trade and Transportation are distinct from each other. This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Table 20.- Per cent of females 16 years of age or over in each specified industry, by general

nativity and race of individual-Continued.

Per cent in

Num

ber reGeneral nativity and race porting of individual.

complete data.

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29 693

53 628 65 25 134

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92 167 973 213 914 789

2.9 .0 6

Foreign-born:

Armenian..
Bohemian and Mora-

vian..
Brava.
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other.
Croatian..
Cuban.
Danish.
Dutch.
English
Finnish
Flemish.
French.
German.
Greek
Hebrew
Irish.
Italian, North
Italian, South
Lithuanian.
Magyar.
Mexican
Norwegian.
Polish..
Portuguese.
Rouinanian
Russian..
Ruthenian.
Scotch.
Servian.
Slovak
Slovenian
Spanish.
Swedish..
Syrian.
Welsh..

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As the households studied were selected with reference to the fact that their heads were employed in connection with certain industries, the foregoing table is not conclusive as to the industrial distribution of the males and females. The selection was made, however, in proportion to the extent to which the several races and nativity groups were employed, and consequently the showing made may be considered a representative distribution according to occupation. Upon comparing the totals, it is at once evident that the greater proportion, or 67.9 per cent, of both native-born and foreign-born males were engaged in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits representing 38 of the principal industries of the country. Moreover, 25 per cent of the foreign-born males and 15.7 per cent of the native-born studied were and zinc mines. Only a small proportion of males were studied in connection with other pursuits, the investigation along this line being restricted to securing only a small number of households for the purpose of indicating the progress on the part of the immigrant population and comparing the males of foreign birth in trade and professional or domestic or personal service with purely industrial workers. As regards the females in the households studied, the larger proportion of each nativity group were at home, the foreign-born showing the highest percentage of women not engaged in work outside the home. A much larger proportion of women of native birth, both of native father and of foreign father, were engaged in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits than of foreign-born women. Of the females native-born of foreign father, the Portuguese show the highest proportion, or 70 per cent, of their women engaged in manufacturing, followed by 60.3 per cent of the Hebrews and 50.2 per cent of the French Canadians. Of the foreign-born women, the Greeks have the greatest proportion, or 66.2 per cent, employed in manufacturing establishments, the Danish being next in order with 56 per cent. The Portuguese come next with 43.5 per cent, followed by the French Canadians with 32.6 per cent.

AVERAGE DAILY, WEEKLY, AND HOURLY EARNINGS.

The table which follows below shows, by general nativity and race, the average amount of daily earnings for all male wage-earners studied who were 18 years of age or over:

*

TABLE 21.- Average rate of daily earnings for male employees 18 years of age or over, by

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[graphic]

Native-born of native father:

Native-born of foreign father, White..

26,987 $2.24 etc.-Continued. Negro..

13, 125
1. 77 Norway:

45 $2.23 Indian. 6 (a) Portugal..

1 Russia.

248

1.98 Native-born of foreign father,

Scotland....

2. 47 by country of birth of father:

Spain..

37

2. 59 Arabia.

1 (a)
Sweden.

178

2. 22 Australia

(a)
Switzerland

78

2. 52 Austria-Hungary.

820 2. 23
Turkey.

1 (a) Belgium..

34
2. 19
Wales

418

2. 48 Bulgaria..

2 (a)

West Indies (other than
Canada.

191
2. 30
Cuba)..

10

2. 28 China..

1 (a)

Africa (country not speci-
Cuba..

136 2. 49
fied).

(a) Denmark.

65 2. 26 South America (country England.

1,828
2. 42
not specified).

1 (a) Finland

3 (a) France

252 2. 35
Total.....

13,248 2. 33 Germany

4,641 2. 34 Greece.

1 (a)
Total native-born..... 53,366

2. 15 India

1 Ireland

3,156 2. 27 Foreign-born, by race: Italy. 156 2. 30 Armenian

42

1.73 Mexico.

20

1.97 Bohemian and Moravian.. 2,171 2. 26 Netherlands. 44 2. 33 Bosnian.....

12 1.83 This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or time lost from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

TABLE 21.- Average rate of daily earnings for male employees 18 years of age or over, by

general nativity and race-Continued.

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The highest average daily earnings, as indicated by the table above, are shown by the second generation of industrial workers, or nativeborn of foreign father, followed by the native-born white wage-earners of native father, who, in turn, are followed by the foreign-born. Among the races of old immigration from Great Britain and northern Europe the highest average daily earnings are shown by the English and the lowest by the Irish. Of the races of southern and eastern Europe, the highest average daily earnings capacity is exhibited by the North Italians, and the lowest by the Greeks and Macedonians. The average amount earned daily by the total of 138,375 male

[graphic]

Average earnings per day of male employees 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race.

NATIVE-BORN OF NATIVE FATHER:

WHITE

NEGRO
INATIVE-BORN OF FOREIGN FATH-
ER, BY COUNTRY OF BIRTH

OF FATHER:

GERMANY

IRELAND
FOREIGN BORN, BY RACE

CROATIAN
GERMAN
ITALIAN, NORTH
ITALIAN, SOUTH
LITHUANIAN
MAGYAR
POLISH

SLOVAK
TOTALS

NATIVE-BORN OF

FOREIGN FATHER
NATIVE-BORN
FOREIGN-BORN

GRAND TOTAL

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