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REPORTS OF THE IMMIGRATION COMMISSION

IMMIGRANTS IN INDUSTRIES

(IN TWENTY-FIVE PARTS)

PART 1: BITUMINOUS COAL MINING

(IN TWO VOLUMES: VOL. II)

PRESENTED BY MR. DILLINGHAM

JUNE 15, 1910.-Referred to the Committee on Immigration

and ordered to be printed, with illustrations

WASHINGTON

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

1911

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Extracts from act of Congress of February 20, 1907, creating and defining the duties of the

Immigration Commission. That a commission is hereby created, consisting of three Senators, to be appointed by the President of the Senate, and three Members of the House of Representatives, to be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and three persons to be appointed by the President of the United States. Said commission shall make full inquiry, examination, and investigation, by subcommittee or otherwise, into the subject of immigration. For the purpose of said inquiry, examination, and investigation said commission is authorized to send for persons and papers, make all necessary travel, either in the United States or any foreign country, and, through the chairman of the commission, or any member thereof, to administer oaths and to examine witnesses and papers respecting all matters pertaining to the subject, and to employ necessary clerical and other assistance. Said commission shall report to Congress the conclusions reached by it, and make such recommendations as in its judgment may seem proper. Such sums of money as may be necessary for the said inquiry, examination, and investigation are hereby appropriated and authorized to be paid out of the “immigrant fund” on the certiticate of the chairman of said commission, including all expenses of the commissioners, and a reasonable compensation, to be fixed by the President of the United States, for those members of the commission who are not Members of Congress; * *

*

a Died February 20, 1908. b Appointed to succeed Mr. Latimer, February 25, 1908. Died December 22, 1909. c Appointed to succeed Mr. McLaurin, March 16, 1910.

LIST OF REPORTS OF THE IMMIGRATION COMMISSION.

Volumes 1 and 2. Abstracts of Reports of the Immigration Commission, with Conclusions and Recom

mendations and Views of the Minority. (These volumes include the Commission's complete reports on the following subjects: Immigration Conditions in Hawaii; Immigration and Insanity; Immigrants in Charity Hospitals; Alien Seamen and Stowaways; Contract Labor and Induced and Assisted Immigration; The Greek Padrone System in the United States; Peonage.) (S. Doc. No. 747, 61st

Cong., 3d sess.) Volume 3. Statistical Review of Immigration, 1819–1910—Distribution of Immigrants, 1850–1900. (S. Doc.

No. 756, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) Volume 4. Emigration Conditions in Europe. (S. Doc. No. 748, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) Volume 5. Dictionary of Races or Peoples. (S. Doc. No. 662, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) Volumes 6 and 7. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 1, Bituminous Coal Mining. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong.,

2d sess.) Volumes 8 and 9. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 2, Iron and Steel Manufacturing. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st

Cong., 2d sess.) Volume 10. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 3, Cotton Goods Manufacturing in the North Atlantic States

Pt. 4, Woolen and Worsted Goods Manufacturing. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) Volume 11. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 5, Silk Goods Manufacturing and Dyeing-Pt. 6, Clothing

Manufacturing-Pt. 7, Collar, Cuff, and Shirt Manufacturing. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) Volume 12. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 8, Leather Manufacturing-Pt. 9, Boot and Shoe Manufac

turing-Pt. 10, Glove Manufacturing. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) Volume 13. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 11, Slaughtering and Meat Packing. (8. Doc. No. 633, 61st

Cong., 2d sess.) Volume 14. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 12, Glass Manufacturing-Pt. 13, Agricultural Implement

and Vehicle Manufacturing. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) Volume 15. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 14, Cigar and Tobacco Manufacturing-Pt. 15, Furniture Man

ufacturing-Pt. 16, Sugar Refining. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) Volume 16. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 17, Copper Mining and Smelting-Pt. 18, Iron Ore Mining

Pt. 19, Anthracite Coal Mining-Pt. 20, Oil Refining. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) Volume 17. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 21, Diversified Industries, Vol. I. (S. Doc. No.633, 61st Cong.,

2d sess.) Volume 18. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 21, Diversified Industries, Vol. II—Pt. 22, The Floating Immi

grant Labor Supply. (s. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) Volumes 19 and 20. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 23, Summary Report on Immigrants in Manufacturing

and Mining. (8. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) Volumes 21 and 22. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 24, Recent Immigrants in Agriculture. (S. Doc. No.

633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) Volumes 23-25. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 25, Japanese and Other Immigrant Races in the Pacific

Coast and Rocky Mountain States. (s. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) Volumes 26 and 27. Immigrants in Cities. (S. Doc. No.'338, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) Volume 28. Occupations of the First and Second Generations of Immigrants in the United States-Fe

cundity of Immigrant Women. (S. Doc. No. 282, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) Volumes 29-33. The Children of Immigrants in Schools. (S. Doc. No. 749, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) Volumes 34 and 35. Immigrants as Charity Seekers. (S. Doc. No. 665, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) Volume 36. Immigration and Crime. (S. Doc. No. 750, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) Volume 37. Steerage Conditions-Importation and Harboring of Women for Immoral Purposes-Immi.

grant Homes and Aid Societies—Immigrant Banks. (S. Doc. No. 753, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) Volume 38. Changes in Bodily Form of Descendants of Immigrants. (S. Doc. No. 208, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) Volume 39. Federal Immigration Legislation-Digest of Immigration Decisions-Steerage Legislation,

1819–1908—State Immigration and Alien Laws. (S. Doc. No. 758, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) Volume 40. The Immigration Situation in Other Countries: Canada-Australia-New Zealand-Argen

tina-Brazil. (S. Doc. No. 761, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) Volume 41. Statements and Recommendations Submitted by Societies and Organizations Interested in

the Subject of Immigration. (S. Doc. No. 764, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) Volume 42. Index of Reports of the Immigration Commission. (S. Doc. No. 785, 61st Cong., 3d sess.)

IMMIGRANTS IN INDUSTRIES.

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING (in two volumes). This report, which was prepared under the direction of the Commission by W.

Lauck, superintendent of agents, forms part the general report of the Immigration Commission on immigrants in industries.

IV

CONTENTS.

PART IV.—THE BITUMINOUS COAL MINING INDUSTRY IN THE

SOUTHWEST

CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

Page.

Households studied...

3

Members of households for whom detailed information was secured

Employees for whom information was secured......

CHAPTER II.-Racial displacements:

History of immigration to the coal mines of the Southwest.......

9

Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and

members of their households

11

Racial classification of employees at the present time

13

History of immigration to the Oklahoma coal fields..

14

Racial movements to selected localities in Oklahoma..

19

Present racial classification of Oklahoma mine workers

23

Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees in

Oklahoma...

24

Future immigration to Oklahoma

History of immigration to the Kansas mines ..

25

Racial movements to selected bituminous mining localities in Kansas.. 28

Racial classification of Kansas mine workers....

29

Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees in

Kansas..

30

Future immigration to Kansas..

31

CHAPTER III.-Economic status:

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied. 33

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States ...

36

General occupation of women at the present time, in the households studied. 38

General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied. 39

Occupations of immigrants in the bituminous mines of the Southwest.... 39

Daily earnings....

41

Relation between period of residence and earning ability.

44

Annual earnings of male heads of families studied..

46

Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied. 48

Annual family income..

50

Wives at work..

51

Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households

studied.

Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of

keeping boarders or lodgers..

52

Sources of family income....

55

Relative importance of the different sources of family income..

57

CHAPTER IV.-Working conditions:

Method of securing immigrants..

61

Hours worked per day.

61

Regularity of employment.

62

The wage scale..

63

Company houses..

64

The company-store system...

65

The immigrant and organized labor.

66

Mining accidents in their relation to recent immigration.

68

Relations among races employed...

69

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