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The significant fact brought to light by the foregoing table is that 98.3 per cent, or practically all, of the females both native and foreign born are at home, and only 1.7 per cent are engaged in domestic or personal service or in trade. The South Italians, Magyars, and Slovaks show a small proportion of the women engaged in domestic or personal service.
GENERAL OCCUPATION OF MALES AT THE PRESENT TIME, IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.
As regards the males 16 years of age or over in the households studied in the southern coal-mining localities, the table below shows their general industrial condition, by general nativity and race.
TABLE 487.-General occupation of males 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.
This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]
Upon examining this table it is seen that 93 per cent of the total for all races of foreign birth are engaged in the coal-mining industry, while 6.9 per cent are engaged in outside work. The races which show a proportion above the average engaged in work other than coal mining are the Polish and Russian, 20.7 per cent of the former and 16.2 per cent of the latter being engaged in occupations outside of the coal mines.
OCCUPATIONS ENTERED IN THE BITUMINOUS COAL-MINING INDUSTRY.
It is clear that the larger part of the races of recent immigration have engaged in an industry for which they had no training or experience abroad.
A large amount of the coal mined in the northern part of West Virginia is taken out by machines. Almost without exception the
machine operators are American whites. The Americans are also trackmen, motor men, and a few of them are pick miners. For the most part the Slovaks, Poles, Croatians, Magyars, Italians, and negroes are loaders after the machines. There are also Slovak, Italian, and Polish pick miners. On the coke ovens are Americans, Poles, Slovaks, and Italians. The power-plant employees are largely Americans. In general, it may be stated that the Americans cut and haul the coal, lay the tracks, and do all the skilled work both inside and outside the mines. The Italians, Croatians, Magyars, and negroes principally load the coal after the machines and do the rough work on the ovens and elsewhere. Slovaks and Poles are often pick miners as well as coke pullers and loaders.
In many mines of the southern coal fields of West Virginia the Slovaks and Magyars are employed almost exclusively in pick mining and underground work. A great many Italians work on the tipples and other outside labor. The following tables covering the occupations of races in mines in the southern part of West Virginia exhibit the range of occupations engaged in by recent immigrants. It will be noted that the Italians are engaged in pick mining and outside labor in largest number, while almost all of the Magyars, all of the Russians, and the two Slovaks employed are pick miners.
The following series of three tables shows, in a summary form, the racial composition of the bituminous mine-working forces, in the West Virginia fields, by occupations. In connection with mine No. 3, coke ovens were operated:
TABLE 488.-Number of coal mine employees in Mine No. 1 in West Virginia, by race and occupation.
TABLE 489.-Number of coal mine employees in Mine No. 2 in West Virginia, by race and
TABLE 490.-Number of employees in Mine No. 3 (coal mining and coke manufacturing) in West Virginia, by race and occupation.
In another mine, which had an average working force of 300 employees, the number of men of each race engaged as pick miners was as follows:
Some members of these races are employed as coke drawers, but comparatively few.
The Italians employed in Virginia are found principally in two occupations those of coke drawers and outside laborers. Very few of those employed have entered the occupation of mining. This has been due very largely to the fact that they are afraid of the dangers connected with coal mining. A vast majority of those employed at most plants are used as coke drawers, and the rest are used principally as laborers on the yards, as loaders into cars or "forkers," or on the tipple or other forms of unskilled labor on the outside. The majority of the coke drawers in this field are South Italians and negroes. The other races found in the field, such as Roumanians, Servians, Croatians, etc., or those which have been here only short periods, are employed almost exclusively at rough unskilled labor, such as coke loaders, etc. None of them have entered the mines except at one mine where about ten of the Roumanians are found working as pick miners.
In the coal and coke industries of Virginia, as in southern West Virginia, the occupations are of three general classes-those of miners, coke drawers, and company men. All mining is done by the piece at so much per mine car, and all coke is drawn by the piece or at a certain price per oven, while all other employees both inside and outside, such as drivers, engineers, trackmen, timbermen, and yard laborers, are paid a stated wage per day, and are termed company
As already stated, the first immigrants to come to the field were Magyars and Slovaks, who were brought in to draw coke. These were added to by members of the same and other races, which have entered almost all occupations. Comparatively few, however, are employed as company men except as rough laborers, tipple employees, coke loaders, etc. The Americans, both white and colored, usually fill the positions of drivers, and the American whites such positions as engineers, firemen, trackmen, and other occupations of like character. The Magyars, Slovaks, and Poles are employed in greater numbers as miners than in any other occupation. This is due principally to the fact that no knowledge of English is required.
DAILY EARNINGS IN THE SOUTH.
Information was also secured as to the daily earnings of 12,084 individual employees in the bituminous coal mines of the South. The table which follows shows by general nativity and race the number and per cent earning each specified amount per day:
TABLE 491.—Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per day, by general nativity and race.*
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]
*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.
Upon referring to the above table, it is seen that of the entire number reporting, 58.4 per cent earn $2 or over per day, 23.4 per cent $2.50 or over, and 2.9 per cent $3.50 or over per day.
As between the persons native-born of foreign father and the foreign-born very little difference in the percentages of each race reporting a specified earning per day exists. Moreover, both show to a better advantage than do the native-born. By way of illustration, of those earning between $2 and $2.50 per day, native-born persons show 33.1 per cent, as compared with 39 per cent of the persons native-born of foreign father, and 39.6 per cent of the foreign-born persons. This margin decreases until the earnings reach $3.50 or over per day, at which point the native-born report a slightly larger percentage earning the specified amount than do the others or 3.1 per cent earning $3.50 or over as compared with 3 per cent of the persons native-born of foreign father, and 2.4 per cent of the foreignborn.
Of the foreign-born races reporting, the Slovaks show higher average earnings than any other race, reporting 43.3 per cent earning $2.50 or over, as compared with 36.7 per cent for the English, 35.6 per cent for the Bulgarians, and 33 per cent Germans. They also