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regards the different races, the Montenegrin, Bulgarian, Russian, and Croatian, in the order mentioned, report the largest proportion of their number in the United States under five years. None of the Irish have been in the country less than five years. The races reporting the largest proportion of their number in the country from five to nine years are the Slovenian and Lithuanian; that reporting the smallest proportion is the Scotch. The races reporting the largest proportion of their number in the United States twenty years or over are, in the order named, the Scotch, Irish, and English; those reporting the smallest proportion, or none at all, the Bulgarian, Croatian, South Italian, North Italian, Magyar, and Russian.
It will be seen from the table that a very large percentage of the races of southern and eastern Europe are of recent arrival. This is notably true of the Bulgarians, Croatians, North Italians, South Italians, Magyars, Montenegrins, and Russians, and in a slightly less degree of the Poles, Slovaks, and Slovenians. Of the English-speaking foreign-born employees, the Scotch, English, and Irish, considerably more than half have been in the country twenty years or over, and the number of recent arrivals is insignificant.
The present tendencies relative to immigration to the coal fields of the South may be seen from the figures showing the number of employees in the country less than one year. The total number reported was 197. Of these, 69 were South Italians, 30 were North Italians, 27 were Magyars, 18 were Poles, and 13 were Croatians.
The following table shows the per cent of foreign-born persons in the households studied who had been in the United States each specified number of years:
TABLE 467.-Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of years, by race of individual.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]
It will be seen from the above table that the majority of persons in this locality for whom information was obtained have been in the United States under five years, while the proportion with a residence of twenty years or over is exceedingly small.
The Russians show by far the largest proportion of individuals who have been in this country under five years. Following the
Russians are the North Italians, English, South Italians, Poles, Germans, and Magyars, in the order named, the proportion of the Magyars being slightly in excess of 60 per cent. The Lithuanians and Slovaks, on the other hand, report each less than 45 per cent as having been in the United States less than five years.
Of those who have been in the United States under ten years, the North Italians and Russians show the largest, and the Lithuanians the smallest, proportions.
With the exception of the North Italian, each race reports a small proportion in the United States twenty years or over.
RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.
The investigation in Virginia, West Virginia, and Alabama secured information from more than 13,000 individual mine workers as to race and country of birth. The tabulation of this data, which exhibits the remarkable changes in the racial composition of the mine-working forces since the last census period, is given below:
TABLE 468.—Male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity and
By reference to the table above it is seen that about seven-tenths of the total number of miners were native-born and three-tenths foreign-born. Thirty-two and six-tenths per cent of the total were native whites born of native father, while 35.7 per cent were nativeborn negroes, showing the fact that the negro constitutes the largest
racial element among the southern bituminous mine workers. The group of persons native-born of foreign father, or the second generation of immigrants, aggregates only one-fortieth of the total number of employees and includes small groups of fourteen races, those most important numerically being English, German, Irish, and Scotch.
As regards the races of recent immigration, the South Italian has the largest representation, the employees of that race forming over 30 per cent of the foreign-born and more than 8 per cent of the total number employed. The North Italian, Slovak, Magyar, and Polish, in the order named, stand next to the South Italian in numerical importance, constituting together about one-tenth of the total number employed. The Croatian is also a prominent race and in the present exhibit forms about 2 per cent of the total mine workers covered. There are comparatively small numbers of immigrants from Great Britain and northern Europe, the total number of persons belonging to such races reporting being only 437, or 3.2 per cent of the total number employed. In addition to the races already mentioned, the presence of the Bulgarian, Macedonian, Lithuanian, Montenegrin, Roumanian, Russian, Slovenian, and Servian is indicated in considerable numbers. Other races of southern and eastern Europe are also represented among the mine workers in comparatively small numbers.
For the purpose of giving a more local application to the racial movements to the coal-mining industry of the South, it has been thought profitable to present the history of immigration to the coalproducing States of Virginia, West Virginia, and Alabama, which have used immigrant labor in their recent remarkable development. In addition to the local interest attaching to such a presentation, a detailed exhibit of this kind within a limited compass is valuable for comparative purposes. The situation in Alabama is first considered, followed by West Virginia and Virginia.
HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION TO THE COAL MINES OF ALABAMA.
The coal-producing region of Alabama is divided into three distinct districts or basins known by the names of the rivers which drain them the Warrior, the Coosa, the Cahaba." The Warrior district is the largest and contains 23 regular seams varying in thickness from a few inches to 16 feet, the total thickness of all seams reaching in some places as high as 115 feet, but the Cahaba district is the principal producer. The county of Jefferson, which includes the city of Birmingham, is in the Cahaba district and contributes more than 50 per cent of the total bituminous coal output of the State. The total coal area of Alabama is estimated to be 6,500 square miles. The coal development of the State began about 1870, and with the exception of the years 1893 and 1894, there has been an annual increase in the coal production." The census of 1840 reported a production of coal in Alabama for that year of 946 tons, and in the census of 1860, 10,200 tons were reported. According to the census report of 1870, the production for that year was 13,200 tons, and in 1880 the Tenth Census reported a production of 323,972 tons. The
a Report on Mines and Quarries, 1902, United States Census Bureau, pp. 54, 166, 167, 680.
b Ibid. pp. 167, 680, 681.
census reports of 1890 and 1902 give the following figures for the coalmining industry in the State of Alabama and the principal coal-producing counties:
TABLE 469.-Development of bituminous coal mining in the State of Alabama, by county,
[From report on Mineral Industries, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 347. Report on Mines and Quarries, 1902, United States Census Bureau.
The coal counties are Bibb, Blount, Callman, Etowah, Jefferson, Marion, St. Clair, Shelby, Tuscaloosa, Walker, and Winston. Slightly more than one-half of the coal produced comes from Jefferson County alone, and over 89 per cent is produced in Jefferson, Walker, and Bibb counties. Birmingham is focated in the east-central portion of Jefferson County. The Cahaba field has an estimated area of 435 square miles, and lies in St. Clair, Jefferson, Shelby, and Bibb counties.
The measures of the Cahaba field have only a thin ledge of limestone a few feet in thickness running through them, and more resemble the measures of the coal fields of Arkansas and Oklahoma than those of the middle and middle western States. Owing to the absence of any considerable amount of pyrites of sulphur, the seams in the Cahaba field are more easily worked than those of Illinois."
The development of the Cahaba district has taken place largely within the past twenty years. A brief statement shows 2,900,000 tons of coal mined twenty years ago compared with over 14,000,000 tons in 1907 and about 11,000,000 tons in 1908; 500,000 tons of coke. manufactured twenty years ago compared with more than 3,000,000 tons in 1908; and 401,330 tons of pig iron twenty years ago compared with 1,400,000 tons in 1908.
The United States Census of 1900 gave to Birmingham proper a population of 38,415, and to the surrounding communities population as follows:
The races employed as miners or as outside men at the mines in the Birmingham district are negro, native white, South Italian, Scotch,
Report on Mines and Quarries, 1902, United States Census Bureau, pp. 167, 680, 681.
Geological Survey of Alabama, Report on Cahaba Coal Field, by Joseph Squire, pp. 4-5.
Slovak, French, English, Bulgarian, German, Irish, Welsh, and North Italian the order in which they are named being, according to their numerical strength. Practically no Italians are miners; they are employed almost altogether on the mining tipples or in outside work.
The first immigrants to be employed in the mines in any numbers were the Scotch, Welsh, and Slovaks, together with a few French, English, and Irish, and a small number of South Italians as outside men. They were first employed over twenty years ago. During the next five years immigration to the mining communities consisted chiefly of Slovaks, English, and Welsh, with a small number of Irish, Scotch, Germans, French, and South Italians. In the next ten years an increasing number of South Italians were employed, with a few Slovaks, Scotch, and French. In the last five years the newer immigrants in mining occupations have been chiefly Bulgarians and North and South Italians, with a small number of French and Scotch. In addition to the above races, a few Poles have been miners for about ten years, although in 1904 a considerable number were brought in, but departed almost immediately. The Bulgarians in the mining communities are composed entirely of those who have drifted away from the steel plant at Ensley, Alabama, where they were first employed. A large number of Slovaks have left the district since the strike of 1904.
PRESENT RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF MINE EMPLOYEES IN ALABAMA.
The racial composition of the operating forces of the mines in Alabama at the present time is shown in detail in the following table: TABLE 470.-Number of male employees in Alabama for whom information was secured, by general nativity and race.