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Each party to have consuls, &c. in each other's ports.

Consuls, &c. must exhibit their commissions.

Immunities of consuls, &c.

May require

agreed, and do agree, to grant to the envoys, ministers and other public agents, the same favours, immunities and exemptions, which those of the most favoured nation do, or shall enjoy: it being understood that whatever favours, immunities or privileges, the United States of America or the Republic of Venezuela may find it proper to give to the ministers and other public agents of any other power, shall, by the same act, be extended to those of each of the contracting parties.

ARTICLE 29.

To make more effectual the protection which the United States and the Republic of Venezuela shall afford in future to the navigation and commerce of the citizens of each other, they agree to receive and admit consuls and vice-consuls in all the ports open to foreign commerce, who shall enjoy in them all the rights, prerogatives, and immunities, of the consuls and vice-consuls of the most favoured nation; each contracting party, however, remaining at liberty to exept those ports and places in which the admission and residence of such consul [and vice-consuls] may not seem convenient.

ARTICLE 30.

In order that the consuls and vice-consuls of the two contracting parties may enjoy the rights, prerogatives and immunities which belong to them by their public character, they shall, before entering on the exercise of their functions, exhibit their commission or patent in due form to the government to which they are accredited, and, having obtained their exequatur, they shall be held and considered as such by all the authorities, magistrates and inhabitants in the consular district in which they reside.

ARTICLE 31.

It is likewise agreed that the consuls, their secretaries, officers and persons attached to the service of consuls, they not being citizens of the country in which the consul resides, shall be exempt from all kinds of taxes, imposts and contributions, except those which they shall be obliged to pay on account of commerce or their property, to which the citizens and inhabitants, native and foreign, of the country in which they reside are subject, being in every thing besides, subject to the laws of the respective States. The archives and papers of the consulates shall be respected inviolably, and, under no pretext whatever, shall any magistrate seize or in any way interfere with them.

ARTICLE 32.

The said consuls shall have power to require the assistance of the authorities of the country for the arrest, detention and custody, of to arrest desert- deserters from the public and private vessels of their country, and for

the aid of the civil authorities

erg.

Deserters mart

be sent back within two months.

that purpose, they shall address themselves to the courts, judges and officers competent, and shall demand the said deserters in writing; proving by an exhibition of the registers of the vessel's or ship's roll, or other public documents, that those men were part of the said crews, and on this demand so proved, (saving, however, where the contrary is proved,) the delivery shall not be refused. Such deserters, when arrested, shall be put at the disposal of said consuls, and may be put in the public prisons, at the request and expence of those who reclaim them, to be sent to the ships to which they belonged, or to others of the same nation. But if they be not sent back within two months, to be counted from the day of their arrest, they shall be set at liberty, and shall be no more arrested for the same cause.

convenido asi mismo, y convienen en conceder á sus enviados y ministros y otros agentes diplomaticos, los mismos favores, inmunidades y exenciones de que gozan ó gozaren en lo venidero los de las naciones mas favorecidas; bien entendido, que cualquier favor, inmunidad ó privilegio que la Republica de Venezuela ó los Unidos Estados de America tengan por conveniente dispensar á los enviados, ministros y agentes diplomaticos de otras potencias, se haga por el mismo hecho estensivo á los de una y otra de las partes contratantes.

ARTICULO 29.

Para hacer mas efectiva la proteccion que la Republica de Venezuela y los Estados Unidos de America darán en adelante á la navegacion y comercio de los ciudadanos de una y otra, se convienen en recibir y admitir consules y vice-consules en todos los puertos abiertos al comercio estrangero, quienes gozarán en ellos de todos los derechos, prerrogativas é inmunidades de los consules y vice-consules de la nacion mas favorecida; quedando no obstante en libertad cada parte contratante, para exceptuar aquellos puertos y lugares en que la admision y residencia de semejantes consules y vice-consules no parezca conveniente.

ARTICULO 30.

Para que los consules y vice consules de las dos partes contratantes puedan gozar de los derechos prerrogativas é inmunidades que les correspondan por su caracter publico, antes de entrar en el ejercicio de sus funciones, presentarán su comision ó patente, en la forma debida, al Gobierno con quien estén acreditados, y habiendo obtenido el exequatur, serán tenidos y considerados como tales por todas las autoridades, magistrados y habitantes del distrito consular en que residan.

ARTICULO 31.

Se ha convenido igualmente que los consules, sus secretarios, oficiales y personas agregadas al servicio de los consulados, (no siendo estas personas ciudadanos del pais en que el consul reside,) estarán exentos, de todo servicio publica, y tambien de toda especie de pechos, impuestos y contribuciones, exceptuando aquellos que estén obligados á pagar por razon de comercio ó propiedad, y á los cuales estan sujetos los ciudadanos y habitantes naturales y extrangeros del pais en que residen, quedando en todo la demas sujetos á las leyes de los respectivos Estados Los archivos y papeles de los consulados serán respetados inviolablemente, y bajo ningun pretesto los ocupará magistrado alguno, ni tendrá con ellos ninguna intervencion.

ARTICULO 32.

Los dichos consules tendrán poder de requerir el auxilio de las au toridades locales para la prision, detencion y custodia de los desertores de los buques públicos y particulares, de su pais, y para este objeto se dirijirán á los tribunales, jueces y oficiales competentes, y pedirán los dichos desertores por escrito, probando por una presentacion de los registros de los buques, rol del equipage ú otros documentos publicos, que aquellos hombres, eran parte de las dichas tripulaciones, y á esta demanda asi probada (menos, no obstante, cuando se probase lo contario) no se recusará la entrega. Semejantes desertores luego que sean arrestados, se pondrán á disposicion de los dichos consules, y pueden ser depositados en las prisiones publicas, á soli citud y espensas de los que lo reclamen, para ser enviados á los buque á que corresponden ó á otros de la misma nacion. Pero si no fueren mandados dentro de dos meses contados desde el dia de su arresto, serán puestos en libertad, y no volverán á ser presos por la misma causa.

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Consular convention to be

formed.

The following points agreed

10.

Treaty to remain in force twelve years.

Individuals personally responsible for infringements.

War not to be declared until remonstrance is

ARTICLE 33.

For the purpose of more effectually protecting their commerce and navigation, the two contracting parties do hereby agree, as soon hereafter as circumstances will permit them, to form a consular convention, which shall declare especially the powers and immunities of the consuls and vice consuls of the respective parties.

ARTICLE 34.

The United States of America and the Republic of Venezuela, desiring to make as durable as circumstances will permit the relations which are to be established between the two parties by virtue of this treaty of peace, amity, commerce and navigation, have declared solemnly, and do agree to the following points:

1st. The present treaty shall remain in full force and virtue for the term of twelve years, to be counted from the day of the exchange of the ratifications, and further, until the end of one year after either of the contracting parties shall have given notice to the other of its intention to terminate the same; each of the contracting parties reserving to itself the right of giving such notice to the other at the end of said term of twelve years; and it is hereby agreed between them that, on the expiration of one year after such notice shall have been received by either from the other party, this treaty in all its parts relative to commerce and navigation, shall altogether cease and determine, and in all those parts which relate to peace and friendship, it shall be perpetually and permanently binding on both powers.

2d. If any one of more of the citizens of either party shall infringe any of the articles of this treaty, such citizen shall be held personally responsible for the same, and harmony and good correspondence between the two nations shall not be interrupted thereby, each party engaging in no way to protect the offender, or sanction such violation."

3d. If, (what indeed cannot be expected) unfortunately any of the articles in the present treaty shall be violated or infringed in any other made, and satis way whatever, it is expressly stipulated, that neither of the contracting faction refused. parties will order or authorize any act of reprisal, nor declare war against the other, on complaints of injuries or damages, until the said party considering itself offended, shall first have presented to the other a statement of such injuries or damages, verified by competent proofs, and demanded justice, and the same shall have been either refused or unreasonably delayed.

Existing treaties not to be affected.

To be ratified within eight

months.

4th. Nothing in this treaty shall, however, be constructed or operate contrary to former and existing public treaties with other sovereigns and states.

The present treaty of peace, amity, commerce, and navigation, shall be approved and ratified by the President of the United States of Ame rica, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by the President of the Republic of Venezuela, with the consent and approbation of the Congress of the same; and the ratifications shall be exchanged in the city of Caracas, within eight months, to be counted from the date of the signature hereof, or sooner if possible.

In faith whereof, we, the plenipotentiaries of the United States of
America and of the Republic of Venezuela, have signed and
sealed these presents.

Done in the city of Caracas, on the twentieth day of January, in the
year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-six, and
in the sixtieth year of the Independence of the United States of
America, and the twenty-sixth of that of the Republic of Venezuela
JOHN GA. WILLIAMSON,
SANTOS MICHELENA,

(L. s.) (L. s.)

ARTICULO 33.

Para proteger mas efectivamente su comercio y navegacion, las dos partes contratantes se convienen en formar luego que las circunstancias lo permitan, una convencion consular, que declare mas especialmente los poderes é inmunidades de los consules y vice consules de las partes respectivas.

ARTICULO 34.

La Republica de Venezuela y los Estados Unidos de America, deseando hacer tan duraderas y firmes como las circumstancias lo permitan, las relaciones que han de establecerse entre las dos potencias en virtud del presente tratado de paz, amistad, navegacion y comercio, han declarado solemnemente, y convienen en los puntos siguentes:

1o. El presente tratado permanecerá en su fuerza y vigor por el termino de doce años, contados desde el dia del cange de las ratificationes, y ademas hasta un año despues que cualquiera de las partes contratantes haya notificado á la otra su intencion de terminarlo; reservandose las partes contratantes el derecho de hacer tal notificacion la una á la otra al fin de dicho termino de doce años. Y ademas se ha convenido que este tratado, en todo lo relativo á comercio y navegacion, quedará sin efecto transcurrido que sea un año despues de recibida dicha notificacion por cualquiera de los partes, y en todo lo relativo á paz y amistad, será perpetuamente obligatorio á ambos poderes.

2o. Si alguno ó algunos de los ciudadanos de una ú otra parte infringiesen algunos de los articulos contenidos en el presente tratado, dichos ciudadanos serán personalmente responsables, sin que por esto se interrumpa la armonia y buena correspondencia entre las dos naciones, comprometiendose cada una á no protejer de modo alguno al ofensor, ó sancionar semejante violacion.

3°. Si, (lo que á la verdad no puede esperarse) desgraciadamente algunos de los articulos contenidos en el presente tratado fuesen en alguna otra manera violados ó infringidos, se estipula espresamente que ninguna de las dos partes contratantes ordenará ó autorizará ningunos actos de represalia, ni declarará la guerra contra la otra, por quejas de injurias ó daños, hasta que la parte que se crea ofendida, haya presentado á la otra una esposicion de aquellas injurias ó daños, verificada con pruebas y testimonios competentes, exîgiendo justicia y satisfaccion, y esto haya sido negado ó diferido sin razon.

4. Nada de cuanto se contiene en el presente tratado, se construirá sin embargo, ni obrará en contra de otros tratados publicos anteriores, y existentes con otros Soberanos ó Estados.

El presente Tratado de Paz, Amistad, Comercio, y navigacion será ratificado por el Presidente ó Vice Presidente de la Republica de Venezuela, encargado del Poder Executivo, con consentimiento y aprobacion del Congreso de la misma, y por el Presidente de los Estados Unidos de America, con consejo y aprobacion del Senado de los mismos; y las ratificaciones serán cangeadas en la ciudad de Caracas dentro de ocho meses contados desde este dia, ó antes si fuere posible.

En fé de lo cual, nosotros los plenipotenciarios de la Republica de Venezuela y de los Estados Unidos de America, hemos firmado y sellado las presentes.

Dadas en la ciudad de Caracas, el dia veinte de Enero, del año del Señor, mil ochocientos treinta y seis, Vigesimosexto de la independencia de Venezuela, y sexâgesimo de la de los Estados Unidos de America.

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Sept. 16, 1836. Proclamation of the President of the U. S., an. 30, 1837.

Mutual agree ment of the parties to the treaty.

Neither party to take commis.

sions from an enemy.

Persons, &c. of one party, captured in an enemy's vessel, to be released.

Vessels to have passports.

Visit of vessels at sea.

American citi

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This is the copy of the Treaty of Peace which we have made with the Americans and written in this book; affixing thereto our blessed seal, that, with the help of God, it may remain firm forever.

Written at Meccanez, the city of Olives, on the 3d day of the month Jumad el lahhar, in the year of the Hegira 1252. (Corresponding to Sept. 16. A. D. 1836.)

ART. 1. We declare that both parties have agreed that this treaty, consisting of twenty-five articles, shall be inserted in this book, and delivered to James R. Leib, agent of the United States, and now their resident consul at Tangier, with whose approbation it has been made, and who is duly authorized on their part, to treat with us, concerning all the matters contained therein.

ART. 2. If either of the parties shall be at war with any nation whatever, the other shall not take a commission from the enemy, nor fight under their colors.

ART. 3. If either of the parties shall be at war with any nation whatever, and take a prize belonging to that nation, and there shall be found on board subjects or effects belonging to either of the parties, the subjects shall be set at liberty, and the effects returned to the owners. And if any goods, belonging to any nation, with whom either of the parties shall be at war, shall be loaded on vessels belonging to the other party, they shall pass free and unmolested, without any attempt being made to take or detain them.

ART. 4. A signal, or pass, shall be given to all vessels belonging to both parties, by which they are to be known when they meet at sea; and if the commander of a ship of war of either party shall have other ships under his convoy, the declaration of the commander shall alone be sufficient to exempt any of them from examination.

ART. 5. If either of the parties shall be at war, and shall meet a vessel at sea belonging to the other, it is agreed, that if an examination is to be made, it shall be done by sending a boat with two or three men only and if any gun shall be fired, and injury done, without reason, the offending party shall make good all damages.

ART. 6. If any Moor shall bring citizens of the United States, or zens and effects their effects, to his Majesty, the citizens shall immediately be set at liberty, and the effects restored; and, in like manner, if any Moor, not a subject of these dominions, shall make prize of any of the citizens

to be restored.

(a) For the treaty with Morocco of January 1787, see ante, page 100.

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