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Southern boundary line established.

Commission. ers to run the boundary line.

Mississippi to be the western boundary, and the navigation thereof secured.

How each nation shall conduct with Indians in their respective territories.

declared and agreed as follows, to wit. The southern boundary of the United States, which divides their territory from the Spanish colonies of East and West Florida, shall be designated by a line beginning on the river Missisippi, at the northernmost part of the thirty-first degree of latitude north of the equator, which from thence shall be drawn due east to the middle of the river Apalachicola, or Catahouche, thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint: thence straight to the head of St. Mary's river, and thence down the middle thereof to the Atlantic ocean. And it is agreed, that if there should be any troops, garrisons, or settlements of either party, in the territory of the other, according to the above-mentioned boundaries, they shall be withdrawn from the said territory within the term of six months after the ratification of this treaty, or sooner if it be possible; and that they shall be permitted to take with them all the goods and effects which they

possess.

ARTICLE III.

In order to carry the preceding article into effect, one commissioner and one surveyor shall be appointed by each of the contracting parties, who shall meet at the Natchez, on the left side of the river Missisippi, before the expiration of six months from the ratification of this convention, and they shall proceed to run and mark this boundary according to the stipulations of the said article. They shall make plats and keep journals of their proceedings, which shall be considered as part of this convention, and shall have the same force as if they were inserted therein. And if on any account it should be found necessary that the said commissioners and surveyors should be accompanied by guards, they shall be furnished in equal proportions by the commanding officer of his Majesty's troops in the two Floridas, and the commanding officer of the troops of the United States in their southwestern territory, who shall act by common consent, and amicably, as well with respect to this point as to the furnishing of provisions and instruments, and making every other arrangement which may be necessary or useful for the execution of this article.

ARTICLE IV.

It is likewise agreed that the western boundary of the United States which separates them from the Spanish colony of Louissiana, is in the middle of the channel or bed of the river Missisippi, from the northern boundary of the said states to the completion of the thirty-first degree of latitude north of the equator. And his Catholic Majesty has likewise agreed that the navigation of the said river, in its whole breadth from its source to the ocean, shall be free only to his subjects and the citizens of the United States, unless he should extend this privilege to the subjects of other powers by special convention.

ARTICLE V.

The two high contracting parties shall, by all the means in their power, maintain peace and harmony among the several Indian nations who inhabit the country adjacent to the lines and rivers, which, by the preceding articles, form the boundaries of the two Floridas. And the better to obtain this effect, both parties oblige themselves expressly to restrain by force all hostilities on the part of the Indian nations living within their boundary: so that Spain will not suffer her Indians to attack the citizens of the United States, nor the Indians inhabiting their territory; nor will the United States permit these last-mentioned Indians to commence hostilities against the subjects of his Catholic Majesty or his Indians, in any manner whatever.

And whereas several treaties of friendship exist between the two contracting parties and the said nations of Indians, it is hereby agreed that

en el presente articulo lo siguiente, à saber. Que el limite meridional de los Estados Unidos, que sepára su territorio de el de las colonias Españolas de la Florida Occidental y de la Florida Oriental, se demarcará por una linea que empieze en el Rio Misisipi, en la parte mas septentrional del grado treinta y uno al norte del Equador, y q? desde alli siga en derechura al Este, hasta el medio del Rio Apalachicola ô Catahouche, desde alli por la mitad de este Rio hasta su union con el Flint: de alli en derechura hasta el nacimiento del Rio Sta Maria; y de alli baxando por el medio de este Rio hasta el oceano Atlantico. Yse han convenido las dos potencias en que si hubiese tropa, guarniciones, ô establecimientos de la una de las dos partes en el territorio de la otra, segun los limites que se acaban de mencionar, se retirarán de dicho territorio en el termino de seis meses despues de la ratificacion de este tratado, ô antes si fuese posible, y que se les permitirá llevar consigo todos los bienes y efectos q posean.

ART. III.

Para la execucion del articulo antecedente se nombrarán por cada una de las dos altas partes contratantes un comisario y un geometra q se juntarán en Natchez en la orilla izquierda del Misisipi, antes de expirar el termino de seis meses despues de la ratificacion de la convencion presente; y procederán à la demarcacion de estos limites conforme à lo estipulado en el articulo anterior. Levantarán planos, y formarán Diarios de sus operaciones, que se reputarán como parte de este Tratado, y tendran la misina fuerza que si estubieran insertas en el. Y si por qualquier motivo se creyese necesario que los dichos Comisarios y Geometras fuesen acompañados con guardias, se les darán en numero igual por el general que mande las tropas de S. M. en las dos Floridas, y el Comandante de las tropas de los Estados Unidos en su territorio del Sudoeste, que obrarán de acuerdo y amistosamente, asi en este punto como en el de apronto de viveres ê instrumentos, y en tomar qualesquiera otras disposiciones necesarias para la execucion de este articulo.

ART. IV.

Se han convenido igualmente que el limite Occidental del territorio de los Estados Unidos que los separa de la Colonia Española de la Luisiana está en medio del canal ô madre del Rio Misisipi desde el limite septentrional de dichos Estados hasta el complemento de los treinta y un grados de latitud al Norte del Equador; y S. M. Catolica ha convenido igualmente en que la navegacion de dicho Rio en toda su extension desde su ovilla hasta el oceano, será libre solo â sus subditos ya los ciudadanos de los Estados Unidos, â menos que por algun tratado particular haga extensiva esta libertad à subditos de sotras potencias.

ART. V.

Las dos altas partes contratantes procurarán por todos los medios posibles mantener la paz, y buena armonia entre las diversus naciones de Indios que habitan los terrenos adyacentes â las lineas y rios que en los articulos anteriores forman los limites de las dos Floridas; y para conseguir mejor este fin se obligan expresamente ambas potencias à reprimir con la fuerza todo genero de hostilidades de parte de las naciones Indias que habitan dentro de la linea de sus respectivos limites: de modo que ni la España permitirá que sus Indios ataquen â los que vivan en el territorio de los Estados Unidos ô à sus ciudadanos, ni los Estados que los suyos hostilizen à los subditos de S. M. Catolica ô â sus Indios de manera alguna.

Exîstiendo varios tratados de amistad entre las expresadas naciones y las dos potencias, se ha convenido en no hacer en lo venidero alianza

Each nation to

protect the vesin their jurisdic

sels of the other

tion.

No embargo allowed.

In cases of

seizure for debts or crimes, how

to proceed.

Vessels forced into port by stress of weather to be relieved.

Property taken from pirates to be restored.

in future no treaty of alliance or other whatever (except treaties of peace) shall be made by either party with the Indians living within the boundary of the other, but both parties will endeavour to make the advantages of the Indian trade common and mutually beneficial to their respective subjects and citizens, observing in all things the most complete reciprocity, so that both parties may obtain the advantages arising from a good understanding with the said nations, without being subject to the expence which they have hitherto occasioned.

ARTICLE VI.

Each party shall endeavour, by all means in their power, to protect and defend all vessels and other effects belonging to the citizens or subjects of the other, which shall be within the extent of their jurisdiction by sea or by land, and shall use all their efforts to recover and cause to be restored to the right owners, their vessels and effects which may have been taken from them within the extent of their said jurisdiction, whether they are at war or not with the power whose subjects have taken possession of the said effects.

ARTICLE VII.

And it is agreed that the subjects or citizens of each of the contracting parties, their vessels or effects, shall not be liable to any embargo or detention on the part of the other, for any military expedition or other public or private purpose whatever: And in all cases of seizure, detention, or arrest for debts contracted, or offences committed by any citizen or subject of the one party within the jurisdiction of the other, the same shall be made and prosecuted by order and authority of law only, and according to the regular course of proceedings usual in such cases. The citizens and subjects of both parties shall be allowed to employ such advocates, solicitors, notaries, agents and factors, as they may judge proper, in all their affairs, and in all their trials at law, in which they may be concerned, before the tribunals of the other party; and such agents shall have free access to be present at the proceedings in such causes, and at the taking of all examinations and evidence which may be exhibited in the said trials.

ARTICLE VIII.

In case the subjects and inhabitants of either party, with their shipping, whether public and of war, or private and of merchants, be forced, through stress of weather, pursuit of pirates or enemies, or any other urgent necessity, for seeking of shelter and harbour, to retreat and enter into any of the rivers, bays, roads or ports belonging to the other party, they shall be received and treated with all humanity, and enjoy all favor, protection and help, and they shall be permitted to refresh and provide themselves, at reasonable rates, with victuals and all things needful for the sustenance of their persons, or reparation of their ships and prosecution of their voyage; and they shall no ways be hindered from returning out of the said ports or roads, but may remove and depart when and whither they please, without any let or hindrance.

ARTICLE IX.

All ships and merchandize, of what nature soever, which shall be rescued out of the hands of any pirates or robbers on the high seas, shall be brought into some port of either state, and shall be delivered to the custody of the officers of that port, in order to be taken care of, and restored entire to the true proprietor, as soon as due and sufficient proof shall be made concerning the property thereof.

ARTICLE X.

When any vessel of either party shall be wrecked, foundered, or

alguna ô tratado (excepto los de paz) con las Naciones de Indios que habitan dentro de los limites de la otra parte, aunque procurarán hacer comun su comercio en beneficio amplio de los subditos y ciudadanos respectivos, guardandose en todo la reciprocidad mas completa, de suerte qe sin los dispendios que han causado hasta ahora dichas naciones á las dos partes contratantes, consigan ambas todas las ventajas q? debe producir la armonia con ellas.

ART. VI.

Cada una de las dos partes contratantes procurará por todos los medios posibles, protexer y defender todos los buques y qualesquiera otros efectos pertenecientes à los subditos y ciudadanos de la otra que se hallen en la extension de su jurisdicion por mar ô por tierra, y empleará todos sus esfuerzos para recobrar y hacer restituir â los proprietarios lexitimos los buques y efectos que se les hayan quitado en la extension de dicha jurisdiccion estén ô no en guerra con la potencia cuyos subditos hayan interceptado dichos efectos.

ART. VII.

Se ha convenido que los ciudadanos y subditos de una de las partes contratantes, sus buques, ô efectos no podran sujetarse à ningun embargo ô detencion de parte de la otra a causa de alguna expedicion militar, uso publico ô particular de qualquiera que sea. Y en los casos de aprehension detencion ô arresto, bien sea por deudas contrahidas û ofensas cometidas por algun ciudadano ô subdito de una de las partes contratantes en la jurisdiccion de la otra, se procederá unicamente por orden y autoridad de la justicia, y segun los tramites ordinarios seguidos en semejantes casos. Se permitira à los ciudadanos y subditos de ambas partes emplear los abogados, procuradores, notarios, agentes ô factores que juzguen mas à proposito en todos sus asuntos y en todos los pleytos qe podrán tener en los tribunales de la otra parte, â los quales se permitirá igualmente el tener libre acceso en las causas, y estar presentes â todo examen y testimonios que podran ocurrir en los pleytos.

ART. VIII.

Quando los subditos y habitantes de la una de las dos partes contratantes con sus buques, bien sean publicos y de guerra, bien particulares ô mercantiles se viesen obligados por una tempestad, por escapar de piratas ô de enemigos, ô por qualquiera otra necesidad urgente à buscar refugio y abrigo en alguno de los rios, habias, radas, ô puertos de una de las dos partes, seran recibidos y tratados con humanidad, y gozaran de todo fabor, proteccion, y socorro, y les será licito proveerse de refrescos, viveres, y demas cosas necesarias para su sustento, para componer los buques, y continuar su viage, todo mediante un precio equitativo; y no se les detendrá ô impedirá de modo alguno el salir de dichos puertos ô radas, antes bien podran retirarse y partir como y quando les pareciere sin ningun obstaculo ô impedimento.

ART. IX.

Todos los buques y mercaderias de qualquiera naturaleza que sean, que se hubiesen quitado à algunos piratas en alta mar y se traxesen á algun puerto de una de las dos potencias, se entregarán alli â los oficiales ô empleados en dicho puerto á fin de que los guarden y restituyan integramente à su verdadero proprietario luego que hiciese constar debida y plenamente que era su legitima propiedad.

ART. X.

En el caso de que un buque perteneciente à una de las dos partes

Vessels wreck ed or foundered

to be relieved.

Settlement of the estates of deceased per

Bons.

otherwise damaged, on the coasts or within the dominion of the other, their respective subjects or citizens shall receive, as well for themselves as for their vessels and effects, the same assistance which would be due to the inhabitants of the country where the damage happens, and shall pay the same charges and dues only as the said inhabitants would be subject to pay in a like case: And if the operations of repair would require that the whole or any part of the cargo be unladen, they shall pay no duties, charges or fees on the part which they shall relade and

carry away.

ARTICLE XI.

The citizens and subjects of each party shall have power to dispose of their personal goods, within the jurisdiction of the other, by testament, donation or otherwise, and their representatives being subjects or citizens of the other party, shall succeed to their said personal goods, whether by testament or ab intestato, and they may take possession thereof, either by themselves or others acting for them, and dispose of the same at their will, paying such dues only as the inhabitants of the country wherein the said goods are, shall be subject to pay in like cases. And in case of the absence of the representative, such care shall be taken of the said goods, as would be taken of the goods of a native in like case, until the lawful owner may take measures for receiving them. And if questions shall arise among several claimants to which of them the said goods belong, the same shall be decided finally by the laws and judges of the land wherein the said goods are. And where, on the death of any person holding real estate within the territories of the one party, such real estate would by the laws of the land descend on a citizen or subject of the other, were he not disqualified by being an alien, such subject shall be allowed a reasonable time to sell the same, and to withdraw the proceeds without molestation, and exempt from all rights of detraction on the part of the government of the respective states.

Vessels sus

pected shall exhibit passports and certificates.

In case of war

ed to merchants

to remove.

ARTICLE XII.

The merchant-ships of either of the parties which shall be making into a port belonging to the enemy of the other party, and concerning whose voyage, and the species of goods on board her, there shall be just grounds of suspicion, shall be obliged to exhibit as well upon the high seas as in the ports and havens, not only her passports but likewise certificates, expressly showing that her goods are not of the number of those which have been prohibited as contraband.

ARTICLE XIII.

For the better promoting of commerce on both sides, it is agreed, one year allow that if a war shall break out between the said two nations, one year after the proclamation of war shall be allowed to the merchants, in the cities and towns where they shall live, for collecting and transporting their goods and merchandizes: And if any thing be taken from them or any injury be done them within that term, by either party, or the people or subjects of either, full satisfaction shall be made for the same by the government.

No citizen of either nation shall take a commission from a foreign

power to arm privateers against the other.

ARTICLE XIV.

No subject of his Catholic Majesty shall apply for, or take any commission or letters of marque, for arming any ship or ships to act as privateers against the said United States, or against the citizens, people or inhabitants of the said United States, or against the property of any of the inhabitants of any of them, from any prince or state with which the said United States shall be at war.

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