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a subordinate who reads to him, word by word, the author's MS. This proof is then returned to the compositor, who is compelled to make in it all the corrections needed to make the proof conform to the copy. As the compositor is not allowed any thing extra for these corrections, it is manifestly his interest to have his proof as "clean" or correct as possible.
Author's Proof.-After these corrections are made by the compositor he then "pulls" another proof, and this, marked "Revise," or "Author's," is sent to an assistant reader, who compares it with the “office proof” to make sure that all the compositor's errors have been properly rectified. The proof is then stamped with the date and despatched with the MS. copy to the author.
Correcting Proof.—On the two following pages is exhibited a specimen page of proof before and after corrections are made. This contains the principal corrections needed in ordinary proof, and the method of marking the same on the margin. If proof is properly marked, it is not necessary that it should be accompanied by a letter to publisher or printer reiterating these corrections. Indeed, such reiteration is always confusing and troublesome.
In correcting proof use a pen in preference to a pencil, and avoid all unnecessary marks on the margin of the proof. General directions to the printer should in all cases be written upon a separate sheet, and if they are sent by mail, they should be placed in separate envelopes. If enclosed with the proof, they subject this to the payment of letter postage.
The Wolf and the Lamb.
NE hot, sultry day, a Wolf and a Lamb happened to come, just at the
mild as possible, that, with humble submission, he could not conceive how
< lead "Be that as it will," replies the Wolf, "you are a rascal, and I have been Roman told that you treated me with ill language behind my back, about half a year
w.f. ago." Upon my ford," says the Lamb, the time you mention was be
fore I was born." The Wolf, finding it to purpose no to argue any longer tr against tuth, fell into a great passion, Snarling and (foaming at the mouth, Jas if he had been mad; and drawing nearer to the lamb, “Sirrah,'
says he, "if it was not you, it was your father, and that is all the same. So he seized the poor innocent, tore it to pieces, and made a meal of it. ESOP'S FABLES.
SPECIMEN OF CORRECTED PROOF
CORRECTIONS OF THE PRESS.
# A space, or more space, between words, letters, or lines.
Less space, or no space, between words or letters.
or Carry a word further to the left or to the right.
or & (dele) Delete, take out or expunge.
Turn a reversed letter.
Elevate a letter, word, or character that is sunk below the proper level.
▷ Bring a word or words to the beginning of a line; also, make a new paragraph.
SPECIMEN OF PROOF AFTER CORRECTION.
THE WOLF AND THE LAMB.
ONE hot, sultry day, a Wolf and a Lamb happened to come, just at the
same time, to quench their thirst in the stream of a clear silver brook, that ran tumbling down the the side of a rocky mountain. The Wolf stood upon the higher ground, and the Lamb at some distance from him down the current. However, the Wolf, having a mind to pick a quarrel with him, asked him what he meant by disturbing the water, and making it so muddy that he could not drink; and, at the same time, demanded satisfaction. The Lamb, frightened at this threatening charge, told him, in a tone a mild as possible, that, with humble submission, he could not conceive how that could be; since the water which he drank, ran down from the Wolf to him, and therefore it could not be disturbed so far up the stream. "Be that as it will," replies the Wolf, "you are a rascal, and I have been told that you treated me with ill language behind my back, about half a year ago." Upon my word," says the Lamb, the time you mention was before I was born." The Wolf, finding it to no purpose to argue any longer against truth, fell into a great passion, snarling and foaming at the mouth, as if he had been mad; and drawing nearer to the lamb, "Sirrah " says he, "if it was not you, it was your father, and that is all one. So he seized the poor innocent, helpless thing, tore it to pieces, and made a meal of it.
CORRECTIONS OF THE PRESS (CONTINUed).
Qy. or? Query.
out, s. c. Words are wanting, see copy.
Make a new paragraph.
Change from Italic to Roman, or from Roman to Italic, as the case may be. = Put in small Capitals.
Put in Capitals.
The other marks are self-explanatory, but the following abbreviations, used
in correcting proof-sheets, require explanations:
w. f. Wrong font; used when a letter is of a wrong size or style.
1. c. Lower case; i. e., put in small or common letters a word or letter that has been printed in capitals or small capitals.
Extra Corrections.-The preceding pages will help to make clear to the novice the character of the printer's charge for "extra corrections," which charge generally appears, for a greater or less amount, in almost every bill rendered for book work. The printer's estimate for a piece of work should, of course, include all the expense of making the printed page agree with the copy. It would be impossible for any estimate to go farther than this, as the number of "changes" made by authors is so much of an unknown quantity; some writers scarcely altering a word, others, because of carelessness in the preparation of their MS., so adding or cancelling material, that to make the changes not infrequently costs as much as the first setting of the type.
There is no charge connected with the printing of a book so unsatisfactory to both author and printer as this one of "extra corrections," and none which is usually so easy to avoid by a little additional care in the proper preparation of the MS. before it is placed in the hands of the printer. It is very difficult to make an author comprehend how much time is required to effect changes in proof which to him may appear but trifling. For instance, a word or two eliminated from the proof, unless other words are substituted of the same length, will require the "overrunning" of the entire paragraph corrected, and not infrequently necessitates the rehandling in the "stick" of several pages. This of course applies equally to the addition of words not in the original сору.
Again, authors sometimes conclude in reading proof that certain material will look better in smaller type than that used for the body of their work. It is, of course, evident that this change requires not only the double setting of the particular matter in question, but in addition (if the proof be in pages) the "overrunning" of all the pages “made up,” to permit of the desired alteration in the size of type.
These changes require time, although to the author their execution may appear a very trifling matter.
When proof is returned from the author, an assistant proof-reader examines it and notes the "changes"—if any —that are marked. These "changes "-i. e., alterations from copy-are then made by what is known as a "timehand," who reports to the foreman each day the time spent in making such corrections, this time being duly checked by the foreman by each day's proof.
Locking Up. If the work is to be electrotyped, the pages are now placed in iron frames called "chases," and "locked up," that is, made perfectly true and secure preparatory to casting, and another proof taken. This is again compared with the author's last proof to see that all the corrections marked have been properly made, another final reading is given it, and the forms are then sent to the foundry to be
In works requiring great precision, or in those to contain an index, an additional proof is usually taken from the plates themselves and submitted to the author. Corrections can be made in these by cutting out words or letters and inserting others in their place. This, however, is necessarily expensive and should be avoided as far as possible.
Electrotyping and Stereotyping. As this is not a treatise on book-making, it is not necessary to enter into the details of the different methods of making book-plates, but a few words as to the relative advantages of printing from type and plates will not, we think, be out of place.
If a work is issued for private circulation only, or is of such a nature that the demand for it can be estimated in advance with any degree of accuracy, then it is undesirable, and indeed useless, to incur the expense of making plates. In this case, after the author has passed upon the last proof, the type is put upon the press, the desired number