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The sheet folded thrice forms an octavo, and gives sixteen octayo pages. As explained before, it is more customary to print an octavo from Double Medium paper, and this will, of course, give thirty-two octavo pages.

Octayo
page.

The sheet folded four times forms a 16mo, and gives thirty-two pages.

page. 16mo

The sheet folded five times forms a 32mo, and gives sixtyfour pages.

32mo
page.

Hitherto each successive fold has bisected the superficies of the page. But there is also the size 12mo to explain.

Ifa sheet be trisected, and then bisected, as in the annexed diagram, it gives by the four folds twenty-four pages, and is called a 12mo or duodecimo.

page.
12mo

As before explained, it is now customary among American

publishers to use double-sized paper, and this, of course, doubles the number of pages printed upon a sheet. Thus

A sheet printed 16mo contains (both sides) 64 pages.
A twelvemo contains
An octavo

48 32

Generally speaking, the dimensions of the four principal sizes of books are as follows:

93 X 12 inches.

6 X 9

Quarto
Octavo
Twelvemo
Sixteenmo

51 X 7 41 X 64

When a decision has been arrived at in regard to the general dimensions of the proposed volume, the next question is as to the size of type and character of printed page.

The amount of material to be printed will, of course, in a large measure, decide the kind of type to be used, and, as a rule, the greater the number of words the smaller the type selected.

It is not our purpose to enter into the general technicalities of book-manufacturing, but we may mention and give examples of the sizes of type most frequently used in book and pamphlet work.

Specimen Page of Pica Type :

Washington Irving was born in the city of New York, April 3, 1783. He was the eighth son of William and Sarah Irving and the youngest of eleven children, three of whom died in infancy. He had four brothers and three sisters who lived to mature age, and whom, as I shall have occasion to speak of them in the course of my narrative, I here name in the order of birth : William, Ann, Peter, Catharine, Ebenezer, John, Sarah.

The parents of Washington came from the opposite ends of Great Britain : his father from the Orkneys; his mother from Cornwall. The father was the son of Magnus Irving and Catharine Williamson, and his ancestors bore on their seals the three holly leaves, which are the arms of the Irvines of Drum, one of the oldest and most respectable families of Scotland, which dates its origin from the days of Robert Bruce.

According to a received tradition, in his secret and precipitate flight from Scotland from the court of Edward I, Bruce sought shelter in the tower of Woodhouse, the dwelling of an Irving of Bonshaw, who was chief of the name. Here he was harbored for some time, and on leaving, he took with him the eldest son of his host, whom he made his secretary and armor-bearer. The son accompanied him through all his varying fortunes, was with him when he was surprised and routed at Methven, in June, 1306, shared all his subsequent dangers and hardships, and was one of seven who lay concealed with him in a copse of holly when his pursuers passed by. In memory of his escape in this extremity of peril, Bruce assumed the holly as a device, and afterward gave it to his faithful secretary, with the motto, , Sub sole sub umbra virens. The motto and the evergreen leaves, both having relation to his unchanging fidelity to his king in prosperity and adversity, in sunshine and in shade, have been the arms of the family ever since. Sir William Irvine, as he is styled in Nisbet's “ Heraldry,” was subsequently Master of the Rolls, and the charter is still extant, dated 4th October, 1324, by which the king conveyed to his faithful and beloved William de Irwyn, in free barony,

Specimen Page of Small Pica Type:

Washington Irving was born in the city of New York, April 3, 1783. He was the eighth son of William and Sarah Irving and the youngest of eleven children, three of whom died in infancy. He had four brothers and three sisters who lived to mature age, and whom, as I shall have occasion to speak of them in the course of my narrative, I here name in the order of birth : William, Ann, Peter, Catharine, Ebenezer, John, Sarah.

The parents of Washington came from the opposite ends of Great Britain : his father from the Orkneys; his mother from Cornwall. The father was the son of Magnus Irving and Catharine Williamson, and his ancesters bore on their seals the three holly leaves, which are the arms of the Irvines of Drum, one of the oldest and most respectable families of Scotland, which dates its origin from the days of Robert Bruce.

According to a received tradition, in his secret and precipitate flight for Scotland from the court of Edward I, Bruce sought shelter in the tower of Woodhouse, the dwelling of an Irving of Bonshaw, who was chief of the name. Here he was harbored for some time, and on leaving, he took with him the eldest son of his host, whom he made his secretary and armor-bearer. The son accompanied him through all his varying fortunes, was with him when he was surprised and routed at Methven, in June, 1306, shared all his subsequent dangers and hardships, and was one of seven who lay concealed with him in a copse of holly when his pursuers passed by. In memory of his escape in this extremity of peril, Bruce assumed the holly as a device, and afterward gave it to his faithful secretary, with the motto, Sub sole sub umbra virens. The motto and the evergreen leaves, both having relation to his unchanging fidelity to his king in prosperity and adversity, in sunshine and in shade, have been the arms of the family ever since. Sir William Irvine, as he is styled in Nisbet's “ Heraldry,” was subsequently Master of the Rolls, and the charter is still extant, dated 4th October, 1324, by which the king conveyed to his faithful and beloved William de Irwyn, in free barony, the lands of Drum, a hunting-seat of the kings of Scotland, situated on the north bank of the river Dee, about ten miles from Aberdeen. The tower of Drum, with its walls of solid masonry, still stands as sound and unimpaired as when the estate was conveyed, and is still occupied by the Irvings, and lays claim to the distinction of being the oldest inhabited dwelling in Scotland.

William de Irwyn married Mariota, the daughter of Sir Robert Keith, Great Mareschal of Scotland, who led the horse at Bannockburn, and was killed at the battle of Duplin in 1332.

Of this family, says Dr. Christopher Irvine, historiographer of Charles II, in an ancient document quoted in Playfair's “ British

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