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rifle bullets. I understand this method of identification works about 80 percent of the time, because the presses that stamp out tablets leave unique "signatures"-microscopic imprints that can come from only one press.

But to be 100-percent effective, the Bureau would have to accumulate samples from every pill press, legitimate and clandestine, in the country, a practical impossibility. And capsules pose an even stiffer challenge to the Bureau's investigators, since they lack the minute markings left by punches and dies on all tablets.

Coded labels would facilitate identification and discourage counterfeiters seeking to capitalize on the reputations of legitimate drug manufacturers. They could also be of crucial assistance to medical personnel in emergencies caused by overdosage of drugs.

I strongly recommend the inclusion of a comprehensive labeling requirement in the omnibus drug control legislation.


Mr. JOHNSON. Mr. Chairman: As a coauthor of H.R. 13136, I want to express my appreciation for the indepth review of the narcotic problem which is currently being made by the Subcommittee on Public Health and Welfare, Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce.

Appreciating fully that this committee is receiving indepth testimony relating to the scope of the narcotic problem I will not go into the details of this other than to say that addiction and abuse of drugs in this country is reaching alarming proportions. It is taking its greatest toll among the youth of our Nation. It is reaching into every area of our society-geographically, socially, and economically and the spread of narcotics must be stopped. It was to achieve this goal that I joined in sponsoring one of the bills before you today, H.R. 13136. The war on drugs must be waged at all levels of government-local, State and Federal. The provisions of the legislation which I have joined in supporting concentrate the Federal efforts in the areas in which I feel the Federal Government can contribute the most-namely, the construction, staffing, and operation of treatment facilities; professional training and evaluation of personnel waging the war against drugs; education in all areas of our country and especially in our schools as to the dangers and seriousness of drug abuse; and finally, one of the most important aspects of this legislation is the development of an adequate research program relating to drug abuse and addiction. The various discussions which have been going on throughout the Nation on the use of drugs and the opposing views expressed by people who are considered authorities in the field indicate to me that we don't know enough about the problem and to solve the problem, we must understand it. A broad program of research into all phases of drug uses must be conducted and I propose the establishment of a National Addiction and Drug Abuse Research Center to be made part of the National Institute of Mental Health. Through coordinated research programs our knowledge into the root causes of the problem will be expanded in a rapid rate and the enforcement agencies and education agencies and the public at large will be able to win the war against narcotics.

In the facilities construction area, the Community Mental Health Centers Act would be amended to allow eligibility for Federal funding of operation and maintenance costs as well as construction and staffing expenses. It shall increase the allowable Federal participation in funding the costs of construction of treatment and rehabilitation facilities from 66 2/3 percent to 90 percent, and in the costs of operation, staffing, and maintenance of these facilities to 90 percent for the first 2 years and 75 percent for the next 6 years. In addition, authorization for future funding appropriations would be granted by the promulgation of this proffered legislation through the fiscal year ending June 30, 1974, as well as providing discretionary continuation grants covering fiscal year 1971 and each of the next 11 fiscal years. In the area of professional training and education, provision has been made for development of specialized training programs and materials for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse and for the training of personnel to administer such programs and services. Research and study relating to current and projected personnel needs in the field of drug abuse as well as planning and conduct of surveys and field trials to evaluate the adequacy of State drug programs will be undertaken. Fellowships and grants for individual studies will be made available under the supervision of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare with the approval of the National Advisory Mental Health Council. Grants will be made available to the States and political subdivision, as well as public nonprofit private agencies for the collection, preparation, and dissemination of educational materials and "for the development and evaluation of programs of drug abuse education directed to the general public, school-age children and other high-risk groups." Dissemination of information shall be channeled through the Secretary acting in coordination with the National Institute of Health.

Mr. Chairman, in conclusion, may I urge early action on legislation to implement the battle against drug abuse. I feel that this is one in which we can be victorious. However, if we are going to win we must get on to the job and I am confident that this fine committee understands the problem and will provide us with the proper tools to fight this battle.

Thank you.


Mr. CORMAN. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I appreciate the opportunity to express my concern about the Nation's rapidly growing drug problem and to discuss the legislative proposal I have introduced in an attempt to control this grave menace to the health and well-being of our citizens.

Last September I introduced H.R. 13561, the Comprehensive Narcotic Addiction and Drug Abuse Care and Control Act, which is one of the proposals being considered today. Several Members have introduced the same titled bill, but my bill varies from these others in one aspect. I deleted reference to the provision which would remove marihuana regulation from the Internal Revenue Code and include the drug under the definition of depressant for stimulant substances in the

Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act, thus making marihuana subject to the penalties and controls imposed on such substances. Since we would undoubtedly be dealing with the regulation of marihuana and other drugs and with the complex issue of penalties in other legislation, I felt that there was no reason to carry on a debate of this aspect of the drug problem within the context of a bill designed for other purposes. I believe my contention was sound. The proposed Controlled Dangerous Substance Act, recently approved by the Senate, will soon be under discussion in the House. I have not yet studied that act in any detail and will not comment on its provisions except to say that it speaks to one aspect of the drug problem and my bill to another. There are many aspects of this problem, and only if they are kept clearly distinct, will they submit to rational analysis. Thus, I have confined the provisions of my bill to answer the great need for research, treatment, and education of drug abuse.

Not long ago, drugtaking was confined to hospitals and to back alleys of our most neglected slums. Even then, of course, addiction was a complex disease, a pathology not simply biological, but also psychological and social. We understood it then even less than we do today, but that ignorance was somewhat excusable: the problem then was marginal. Lamentably, this is no longer the case. Today we are well on our way to becoming a nation of drugtakers.

The use of addictive drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and opium has spread rapidly. Addiction now claims about 100,000 victims, as compared with about 60,000 several years ago. But the really dramatic advance has been on new fronts. This decade has seen the rise of household drugs and drugs of rebellion. Though unscientific, these categories are useful, for they reflect a distinction commonly made by the society at large.

The household drugs are generally taken by worried or harassed citizens of middle age who consider themselves normal in all respects. According to Dr. Stanley Yolles, director of the National Institute of Mental Health, sedatives and tranquilizers, usually with an amphetamine or barbituate base, are used in excess by 200,000 to 400,000 Americans. In a few years, these figures will surely be an underestimate; the abuse of depressant and stimulant drugs is rapidly becoming part of our frenetic way of life.

Simultaneously, many of those unhappy with that way of life, typically the young and well-educated, have adopted the hallucinogenic drugs as a badge of rebellion. Our figures on these drugs are very unreliable, but conservative estimates suggest that at least 5 million persons have taken marihuana once or more. Among these are between 20 and 40 percent of our college students. About 5 percent have experimented with LSD or its more potent cousins. And, it has not stopped with those of college age. Recent reports and statistics tell of an alarmingly high rate of marihuana used at high school and junior high school levels. It has become a frightening situation.

On the horizon hover whole families of even more extraordinary substances. Scientists now rather casually mention the possibility of drugs which will enhance or obliterate memory, which will induce blissful contentment, unquestioning acquiescence, or anxious awareness. We may one day have the chemical knowledge to alter an indi

vidual's genes. The moral, social and legal problems suggested by these possibilities stagger the imagination, but almost no one is thinking seriously about them. Too many scientists still think their responsibility ends at the laboratory bench; too many of us in public life refuse even to consider a problem until it reaches catastrophic proportions. Today's delay, of course, sets the stage for tomorrow's panic. Even now, we have our fair share of hysteria. Parents are asking for draconian drug legislation and, simultaneously, pleading with the police to go easy on the drug infractions of their own children. Superficially strident and demanding, the public mood is actually very confused and contradictory. And no wonder. Our laws are archaic and inconsistent, and our knowledge of the use and abuses of drugs remains pathetically thin. We are all arguing in a factual vacuum, a procedure guaranteed to produce shrill and meaningless echoes.

My bill deals with research, treatment and education. Designed to gather knowledge and to disseminate it rapidly throughout the country, it would provide an early warning system for drugs and a rescue operation for those who foolishly ignored the warnings in the past. This bill does not aim at altering our drug laws, which is necessary, but is a separate task. My bill is hardly a substitute for the writing of new and consistent penal statutes in the drug area. But neither are criminal statutes a substitute for the bill I have introduced. For at least three broad reasons, penalities alone will never eradicate the drug menace:

First, drug abuse is already rampant in the face of rather stringent State and Federal sanctions; the deterrent power of law is clearly less than absolute in this area. Second, for many drugs we have insufficient knowledge to write an intelligent penal statute. It does not match the crime, the law will meet with contempt, not respect; it will be evaded, not obeyed. Third, and most important, no criminal law can help the thousands of citizens whose lives have already been cruelly transformed by drugs.

My bill attacks those aspects of the drug abuse phenomenon which are immune to legal sanctions. It would amend the Community Mental Health Centers Act to allow eligibility for Federal funding of operation and maintenance costs as well as construction and staffing expenses. The bill would authorize the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to make grants, at the recommendation of the National Advisory Mental Health Council, for reserach, personnel training, educational materials, and evaluation surveys relevant to the drug abuse problem. Section 302 (a) of the Public Health Service Act would be amended to allow studies of depressant and stimulant drugs, as well as narcotics.

The bill would establish regional research centers for the study of drug abuse, one of which would become a National Addiction and Drug Abuse Center.

Finally, my bill would give the Secretary of HEW, in consultation with a new and expert committee, the authority to designate substances as depressant or stimulant drugs and to control the medical and scientific uses of narcotics and depressant or stimulant drugs. I regard this as a very important provision; its adoption would indicate that we understand the fundamental nature of the drug menace

threatening this country. The drug problem, largely and increasingly, is a public health problem. It should therefore largely fall under the jurisdiction of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Mr. Chairman, I am heartened by the fact that these hearings are being held. I am heartened by the approval the House gave last October to the Drug Abuse Education Act, which I cosponsored, and which I hope the Senate will soon approve. The provisions of that legislation can be used as a counterpart to my bill under discussion today.

We have finally come to the realization that the drug problem will not go off somewhere into oblivion. We know now that the Federal Government must commit itself to providing effective tools with which to attack every aspect of the problem. The provisions of the Narcotic Addiction and Drug Abuse Act are strong tools.

I urge the committee to consider them carefully and to report favorable legislation as quickly as possible, so that the attack against this scourage can begin.

Thank you.


Mr. WILSON. Mr. Chairman and distinguished members of the committee, it is with sincere pleasure that I testify before you today on an issue with which I have been extremely concerned for some time. As the chief sponsor in the House of H.R. 13136, the Comprehensive Narcotic Addiction and Drug Abuse Care and Control Act, as a cosponsor of the recently passed drug abuse education bill, and as the author of the proposed legislation to create a Commission To Study Marihuana and Other Hallucinogenic Drugs, I have been attempting to call the public's attention to a great menace to the health and welfare of the American people.

A few months ago, the Washington Post ran an editorial on the administration's approach to this problem. The Post asked:

Is it not time, in short, for a fresh approach to drug addiction-an approach designed not so much to vent anger as to offer help?

It is my opinion that such an approach has been found. Immediately after the Nixon-Mitchell law-enforcement oriented message was delivered to Congress, I introduced in the House of Representatives and Mr. Yarborough of Texas introduced in the Senate a bill that would provide for a comprehensive and coordinated attack on the narcotic addiction and drug abuse problem.

A reading of the bills so introduced shows significant differences from administration proposals in specific recommendations, as well as in conveying to the reader a totally different tenor due to the utilization of another approach to the problem.

For example, marihuana under the Yarborough-Wilson bills would be removed from coverage under the Internal Revenue Code and added to the definitions of depressant or stimulant drugs in the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, thereby making it subject to the controls imposed on such substances rather than those provided for hard narcotic drugs in the Internal Revenue Code. In addition, authority would be transferred from the Attorney General back to the Secretary of Health,

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