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Now as to cigarettes

Mr. HASTINGS. I used that as an example.

Dr. GODDARD. I think they produce physical dependence and psychological dependence.

Mr. HASTINGS. You strengthen my argument. You strengthen my testimony. I am delighted that the House of Representatives has seen fit to allow you to come before the committee.

Dr. GODDARD. Thank you.

Mr. JARMAN. Mr. Preyer.

Mr. PREYER. Dr. Goddard, I think your point that you have made here, warning us against quick and easy solutions is certainly a very valuable one. You make the point that what is demanded is the combined and balanced effort of science, law and public education.

I think it was H. L. Mencken that said something about a solution to a problem that it was logical, reasonable, persuasive and wrong. I think that applies to many aspects of the Senate bill.

We tend to, when we run into a problem, go for the quick solution that has a certain surface logic. That is usually to sock it to them and that is almost inevitably the wrong way. At least, it is rarely enough, standing alone. I think you have given a balanced point of view here and I thank you for your testimony.

Dr. GODDARD. Thank you.

Mr. PREYER. Thank you.

Mr. JARMAN. Dr. Goddard, we appreciate very much your adding to the record today.

Dr. GODDARD. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Mr. JARMAN. Our next witness is Mr. Donald K. Fletcher, manager of distribution protection, Smith Kline & French Laboratories. STATEMENT OF DONALD K. FLETCHER, MANAGER OF DISTRIBUTION PROTECTION, SMITH KLINE & FRENCH LABORATORIES; ACCOMPANIED BY CLIFFORD C. DAVID, LEGISLATIVE COUNSEL Mr. FLETCHER. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and members of the committtee. My name is Donald K. Fletcher. I am manager of distribution protection at Smith Kline & French Laboratories of Philadelphia, a manufacturer of prescription drugs and other health related products. Accompanying me is Clifford C. David, our company's legislative


Smith Kline & French Laboratories is one of the 10 largest prescription drug companies in the United States. Our corporation employs 9,100 people, about 5,600 of them in this country and the remainder abroad. We have foreign subsidiaries, 22, and branches, and own and operate manufacturing plants in 10 countries. S.K. & F. products are marketed throughout the world. Our principal activity is the discovery, development, manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals. We have a line of more than 50 products, for the treatment of a wide range of conditions, including, for example, mental illness, allergy, pain, overweight, nasal infection and congestion and high blood pressure.

Smith Kline & French welcomes this opportunity to testify in these important legislative hearings on the problems of drug abuse. We hope we can make constructive suggestions as we have sought to do in the

past when your committee was considering drug abuse control legislation.

Before we make specific comments on any of the pending legislation in this area we have a general observation on the nature of this problem, as we have witnessed its development during a decade or more. Smith Kline & French has supported in the past, and will support today, comprehensive controls over industry and the professions to preclude diversion of drugs from legitimate channels. However, we feel the best long term solution, the most hopeful answer, lies in an extensive program of education about the dangers of drug abuse, and in research into its underlying causes.

In our own small way, we are doing everything we can, and have for many years, to stimulate this kind of education and research. Admittedly the efforts of any one company are only a "drop in a bucket" compared with the size of the program needed to produce meaningful results.

We believe the problems grow out of underlying sociological, psychological and emotional factors symptomatic of chaotic and rapidly changing cultural patterns in the United States and many other advanced Western nations.

The most visible and widely publicized aspect of the problem is the abuse of the so-called soft drugs by our young people. The abuse of stimulants, sedatives, and hallucinogens has become a rallying cry for many of those joining "hippies" and "New Left" movements. These radical groups, frequently led by well educated, eloquent spokesmen, are challenging our entire ethics, laws, and social values. To many of your young people buffeted and confused by the stresses of adolescence, the free life, distinctive dress, and drug experiences they hear about are becoming synonymous with escape from parental and establishment control. Youths from all strata of our society are led into illicit experience with drugs by group pressures, from companions, and sometimes by curiosity.

Because of the social importance of the problem of drug abuse, some authorities, in seeking a solution, have directed their attention primarily toward the enactment of legislation which would increase controls upon the legal distribution of these drugs. The problem is much broader-drug abuse among youth is an expression of rebellion, curiosity, or conformity to peer pressures-and such restrictive legislation alone, like the prohibition of liquor in the United States 50 years ago, is likely to have little long term effect on the incidence of drug abuse. Rather, such restrictions may only increase the price of illicit drugs and make the traffic more profitable to the criminal pushers and perhaps force the adolescent abusers into crime to support an increasingly expensive habit.

The solution to this problem includes a rigorous enforcement of the law to curtail illicit drug traffic and, of equal or greater importance, an effective mass education program for our young people to convince them that abusing drugs, smoking marihuana, or sniffing glue, is no escape from, or solution for, the problems of living.

This approach can be successful as has been demonstrated by the decline in cigarette smoking among young adults as a result of mass education programs in the schools, on TV and in other media during

the last 5 years. We are inclined to agree with Representative Carter's suggestion, during your hearings February 4, that the dangers of drug abuse should be emphasized on television and in the other media at least as much as those of cigarettes. We may indeed have "slipped" on this priority, as Dr. Carter said.

My company has for many years been waging a vigorous campaign against misuse of its own products.

But we also were active in the battle against drug abuse in general long before it emerged as a grave national problem threatening to ruin the lives of so many of our young people. Like this committee, we are concerned about this problem before "grass" and "pot" and "acid" and "speed" became part of the jargon of our times.

I might pause at this point and express our formal appreciation to the committee for its commendation, in House Report 130, 89th Congress, first session, of "the educational programs and the programs of cooperation with law enforcement agencies and drug identification carried on by Smith Kline & French Laboratories of Philadelphia." As you will recall, this was your report recommending enactment of the 1965 Drug Abuse Control Amendments, which had S.K. & F.'s strong support.

We were proud of your commendation, Mr. Chairman, and we have done our best ever since to live up to it.

Our principal efforts at control of drug abuse have been directed mainly at developing strict product security measures both in and out of our plant, at supporting strong Federal legislation against illicit drug traffic, like the 1965 Drug Abuse Control Amendments, and at educating the public about the dangers of drug abuse. Our educational program has extended to millions of people-to civic and service organizations, to law enforcement agencies, to parents and to students at the college and the high school level.

In my present position and through my former service with the Texas State Police, I have had an opportunity to see and understand the problems faced by police officials in drug abuse control. To augment the services that Smith Kline & French has maintained for the medical and paramedical professions, we began an intensive program of law enforcement liaision in 1962.

This program included a drug identification laboratory service for analysis and identification of suspect drugs seized by law enforcement officials anywhere in the country. In addition, we assisted police laboratories by furnishing them information on the latest analytical methods and also by actual training of police laboratory personnel in our own facilities or theirs.

As part of our education program, we provide speakers for police training schools and seminars. Since the program began, I have spoken at seveal hundred police schools in almost every state. Other representatives of Smith Kline & French have appeared before similar


In 1965, we published a booklet, "Drug Abuse-A Manual for Law Enforcement Officers," which gives the law enforcement officer information about the many aspects of the drug abuse problem. To help us produce this booklet we sought the advice of a panel of knowledgeable law enforcement officers, physicians and pharmacists. More than

250,000 copies of the manual have been printed and distributed to all major law enforcement organizations.

In January 1969 I went to Geneva, Switzerland, with several other representatives of Smith Kline & French to help complete the final draft of an international drug abuse manual that has just been published. Consultants on the manual included Harry Anslinger, former head of the U.S. Bureau of Narcotics; Adolph Lande of Columbia University, an international drug control expert; and Jean Neopote, secretary-general of Interpol, worldwide cooperative police organization. The manual is the first of its kind, and will be printed in several languages for use by police and health officials throughout the world.

Dr. James L. Goddard, former Commissioner of the FDA, has pointed out that parents and teachers can help young people by discussing drugs frankly at home and in the classroom. To encourage this kind of educational effort, we published a manual on drug abuse for secondary school and college teachers. A group of prominent educators, physicians, law enforcement officers, and pharmacists helped us prepare the manual, which has served as a basic source of information for teachers at all levels of education. More than 150,000 copies of "Drug Abuse: Escape to Nowhere" have been distributed. In this effort, we joined forces with the National Education Association, which handles the distribution of the manual to educators and the general public.

We have also published and distributed a number of other pamphlets. One of these, "Drug Abuse: The Empty Life", was developed for the laymen-especially teenagers. More than 2 million of these booklets have been printed. They have been well received by professionals from many fields and are widely used as supplementary material in conjunction with speeches and seminars.

"Drug Abuse: Game Without Winners-A Basic Handbook for Commanders" was published by the Armed Forces Information Service, Department of Defense, with assistance from Smith Kline & French. Several hundred thousand copies have been distributed to our Armed Forces throughout the world.

In addition to these major publications, we have prepared and widely distributed at least a half dozen pamphlets concerning particular phases of drug abuse problem for use in local community action programs-right at the grass roots.

One of our most recent educational projects is a color film which dramatizes the communications-generation gap-and challenges both our youth and their parents to bridge that gap. We call it "Drug Abuse; Everybody's Hangup."

In summary, we feel that Smith Kline & French has played a constructive and vigorous role in the fight against drug abuse. We have attacked the problem on many levels: research, legislative, education, and practical support to law enforcement agencies. Our programs have worked extremely well, but in a sense they are all just a beginning. We hope that your committee, when it acts on drug abuse legislation, will include provisions to encourage expansion of educational programs by both the public and private sector.

If we expect young people to make wise decisions concerning what drugs can and cannot do, we must give them facts, not sermons, otherwise they will not listen to us. Facts we must have. If they are not available, research must find them and education must disseminate them.

The illicit use and traffic in medically important drug products is doubly distressing to the prescription drug industry, which spends great amounts of time, energy, and money to discover and market new drugs to prevent or ease human suffering.

We feel certain that the important new legislation this committee will recommend to the House will measurably assist in the national effort to control drug abuse and stamp out illicit traffic in dangerous drugs by combining in proper balance the three key ingredients: research, education, and enforcement.

Let me turn now to the legislation that is pending before your committee and make specific suggestions for provisions S.K. & F. believes should be included in any new drug abuse control law.

First, we hope that care will be taken to avoid unnecessary interference with medical research or with the legitimate distribution of medically useful drug products, for this would impede medical practice and be harmful to patients in need of such drugs.

We emphasize our belief, Mr. Chairman, that Federal regulation of manufacturers and distributors of the drugs covered by these legislative proposals can be an effective curb on illicit drug traffic and still not unreasonably interfere with research or legitimate uses. In fact, we believe that Federal regulation of so-called DACA drugs at the manufacturing level and in trade channels needs to be tightened up sharply.

Experience since 1965 with the drug abuse control amendments indicates that while responsible elements of the drug trade have moved promptly to comply with additional regulatory requirements, of the drug trade, illicit traffic has flourished, supplied—at least in part-by products that were legally manufactured.

Accordingly, we recommend that manufacturers of products subject to this pending legislation, and wholesalers handling such products, should have to obtain a Federal license in order to engage in these activities in interstate or intrastate commerce. All that is required under present law, the 1965 drug abuse control amendments, is that manufacturers and wholesalers register with the Department of Justice. Retailers are already licensed under State laws.

Second, we recommend that stricter controls over exports be established. This would provide enforcement officials with the regulatory authority to crack down on extensive illicit traffic in U.S. border areas of the kind that was making daily headlines a few months ago.

These two key recommendations are based on the important premises that: (1) Controlled drug products legally manufactured in the United States are reaching the illegal market in large quantities and that (2) a major diversion technique is the purported legal export of controlled drugs and their clandestine return to this country for illicit sale to abusers.

The proposed new Federal license for manufacturers, repackers, and wholesale distributors of controlled drug products should be conditioned on prior inspection to assure appropriate conditions of manu

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