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PAGE Wills v. Murray, 4 Exch. 843 ; 19 L. J. Ex. 209

130, 731 Wilmot v. Smith, Moo. & M. 238 ; 3 C. & P. 453

: 5i9, 629, 667 v. Wilkinson, 6 B. & C. 506 ; 9 D. & R. 620.

331 Wilson, Re, 35 L. J. Ch. 243

443 v. Barthrop, 2 M. & W. 863 ; M. & H. 81; 1 Jur. 949.

275 v. Bevan, 7 C. B. 673 ; 18 L. J. C. P. 244

110 v. Braddyll, 9 Exch. 718; 23 L. J. Ex. 227

653 v. Coupland, 5 B. & Ald. 228

69 v. Craven, 8 M. & W. 584

482 v. Ford, L. R. 3 Ex. 63 ; 37 L. J. Ex: 60 ; 17 L. T. 605; 16 w. R. 482 .

243 v. Fuller, 3 Q. B. 68; 3 G. & D. 570

336 v. Furness Rail. Co., L. R. 9 Eq. 28

709 1. General Iron Screw Collier Co., 47 L. J. Q. B. 239; 39 L. T. 789

721 v. Glossop, 20 Q. B. D. 354 ; 57 1. J. Q. B. 161; 58 1. 1. 207

244 WILSON v. HART, L. R. 1 Ch. 463 ; 35 L. J. Ch. 569 ; 12 Jur. N. S. 460... 47

v. Hatton, 2 Ex. D. 336; 46 L. J. Ex. 489 ; 36 L. T. 473; 25 W.
R. 537

348 v. Hodson, L. R. 7 Ex. 84; 41 L. J. Ex. 49; 20 W. R. 438 315 v. Jones, L. R. 1 Ex. 193 ; 2 Ex. 139 ; 35 L. J. Ex. 95; 36 L. J.

Ex. 78; 14 L. T. 65 ; 16 L. T. 669 ; 15 W. R. 435 ; 4 H. &C. 221 547 v. Kearse, Peake, Add. Cases, 196 .

182 v. Lewis, 2 M. & G. 197

284 v. Lloyd, L. R. 16 Eq. 60 ; 42 L. J. Ch. 559; 28 L. T. 331 ; 21 w.

; R. 507

730 WILSON v. MERRY, L. R. 1 sc. & D. App. 326 ; 19 L. T. 30

531 v. Northampton, &c., Rail. Co., L. R.'9 Ch. 279; 43 L. J. Ch. 503 ; 30 L. T. 147 ; 22 W. R. 380

709 v. Ray, 10 A. & E. 32; 2 P. & D. 253

83 v. Smyth, 1 B. & Ad. 801

240 v. Strugnell

, 7 Q. B. D. 548 ; 50 L. J. M. C. 145 ; 45 L. T. 218; 45 J. P. 831 ; 14 Cox C. C. 624

90 v. Tucker, 3 Stark. 154 ; D. & R. N. P. c. 30

535 v. Tumman, 6 M. & G. 236 ; 6 Scott N. R. 894 ; 12 L. J. C. P. 307 264 v. West Hartlepool Rail Co., 2 De G. J. & S. 475 ; 34 L.J. Ch. 241 292 v. Wilson (1838), 6 Scott, 540 ; 4 Bing. N. C. 748

584 (1848), 1 H. L. Cas. 538 ; 5 H. L. Cas. 40; 23 L. J. Ch. 697.

249 (1854), 14 C. B. 616 ; 2 c. l. R. 818 ; 23 L. J. C. P. 137

98 v. Zulueta, 14 Q. B. 405 ; 19 L. J. Q. B. 49; 14 Jur. 366 . 163, 272 Wiltshire v. Sims, 1 Camp. 258 ; 10 R. R. 673

263 Iron Co. v. Great Western Rail. Co., L. R. 6 Q. B. 101, 776; 40 L. J. Q. B. 43, 308 ; 19 W. R. 177, 935 ; 23 L. T. 666

409 Windhill Lcl. Bd. v. Vint, 45 Ch. D. 351 ; 59 L. J. Ch. 608 ; 63 L. T. 366 ; 38 W. R. 738

573 Windle v. Jordan, 75 Maine, 149

403 Windsor, &c. Rail

. Co. v. Reg, 11 App. Cas. 607; 55 L. J. P. C. 41; 55 L. T. 271; 51 J. P. 260 .

310 Wing v. Mill, 1 B. & Ald. 104

38 Wingfield, In re, 10 Ch. D. 591

370 Winkworth v. Packington, 2 C. & P. 599

409 WINN v. BULL, 7 Ch. D. 29 ; 47 L. J. Ch. 139 ; 26 W. R. 230

11 Winstone v. Linn, 1 B. & C. 460 ; 2 D. & R. 465

528 Winter v. Trimmer, 1 W. Bl. 395

719 Wintle v. Crowther, 1 C. & J. 316

281, 284 Wise v. Charlton, 4 A. & E. 786; 6 N. & M. 364 ; 2 H. & W. 49

158 - v. Great Western Rail. Co., 25 L. J. Ex. 258; 1 H. & N. 63

431 v. Metcalfe, 10 B. & C. 299 ; 5 M. & R. 235

346 WITHERS v. REYNOLDS, 2 B. & A. 882

374, 624, 625 Wittersheim v. Carlisle (Lady), 1 H. Bl. 631

681 Wolf v. Oxholm, 6 M. & S. 92

190 v. Summers, 2 Camp. 631 ; 12 R. R. 764

439 Wolseley v. Cox, 2 Q. B. 321 ; 11 L. J. Q. B. 9; 6 Jur. 599

157 Wolmershausen v. Gullick, (1893] 2 Ch. 514 ; 62 L. J. Ch. 773 ; 68 L. T. 753 ; 3 R. 610

494 Wolverhampton Banking Co., Ex parte, Campbell, In re, 14 Q. B. D. 32; 33 W. R. 642; 1 M. B. R. 261

86, 90, 561 Wolveridge v. Steward, 1 C. & M. 645 ; 3 M. & Scott, 561

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PAGE Wontner v. Shairp, 4 C. B. 404 .

10 Wood v. Abrey, 3 Madd. 417 ; 18 R. R. 264

563 t. Benson, 2 C. & J. 94'; 2 Tyr. 98 ; 1 Price P. c. 169

37 v. Copper Miners Co., 7 C. B. 906 ; 18 L. J. C. P. 292

101 v. Curling, 16 M. & W. 628

397 v. Downes, 18 Ves. 120 ; 11 R. R. 160

577 v. Dund, L. R. 2 Q. B. 73 ; 36 L. J. Q. B. 27; 15 i. T. 411

;

.

632 v. Hurd, 2 Bing. N. C. 166

502 WOOD v. LEADBITTER, 13 M. & W. 838; 14 L. J. Ex. i61

132, 328 v. Manley, 11 A. & E. 34 ; 3 P. & D. 5 ; 3 Jur. 1028

132 v. Priestner, L. R. 2 Exch, 282 ; 36 L. J. Ex. 127

469, 481 v. Rowcliffe, 6 Exch. 407 ; 20 L. J. Ex, 285

121 v. Wood (1889), 14 P. D. 157

502 Woodbridge v. Spooner, 3 B. & Al. 233 ; 1 Chit. 661 :

135 Woodcock v. Gibson, 4 B. & C. 462

306 Woodgate v. Potts, 2 C. & K. 457

225 Woodger v. G. W. R. Co., L. R. 2. C. P. 318 ; 36 L. J. C. P. 177 ; 15 L. T. 579

416, 445 Woodland v. Fear, 7 E. & B. 519 ; 3 Jur. N. S. 587 ; 26 L. J. Q. B. 202

81 Woodman v. Chapman, 1 Camp. 188 ; 10 R. R. 666

231 Woodward v. L. & N. W. R. Co., 3 Ex. D. 121 ; 47 L. J. Ex. 263 ; 38 L. T. 321

421 Woolfe v. Horne, 2 Q. B. D. 355 ; 46 L. J. Q. B. 534 ; 36 L. T. 705 273 Woolley v. Clark, 5 B. & Al. 744; 1 D. & R. 509

317 r. Jennings, 5 B. & C. 165 ; 7 D. & R. 824 ; 2 c.&. P. 144 :

480 Wootton v. Steffenoni, 12 M. & W. 129 ; 13 L. J. Ex. 72

190 Worsley v. Wignall, L. R. 1 P. & M. 648 ; 28 L. J. Mat

. 43 ; 20 L. T. 546 251 v. Wood, 6 T. R. 710; 2 H. Bl. 574 ; 3 R. R. 323

36, 547, 621 Worthington v. Grimsditch, 7 Q. B. 749 ; 15 L.J. Q. B. 52 ; 10 Jur. 26...695, 696 v. Warrington, 5 C. B. 635 ; 17 L. J. C. P. 117

122 Wray v. Milestone, 5 M. & W. 21

96 Wreck Recovery Co., In re, 15 Ch. D. 353 ; 43 L. T. 190 ; 29 W. R. 266 297 Wright v. Colls, 8 C. B. 150; 13 Jur. 1056 ; 19 L. J. C. P. 60

76 v. Crooks, 1 Scott, N. R. 685

143, 560 v. Fairfield, 2 B. & Ad. 727

196 v. Horton, 12 App. Cas. 371 ; 56 L. J. Ch. 873 ; 56 L. T. 782 ; 36 W. R. 17 ; 52 J. P. 179

593 v. Laing, 3 B. & C. 165 ; 4 D. & R. 783

639 v. Leonard, 11 C. B. N.'s. 258 ; 30 L. J. C. P. 365; 8 Jur. N. s. 415 ; 4 L. T. 110; 9 W. R. 944

235 v. Mid. R. Co., L. R. 8'Ex. 137 ; 42 L. J. Ex. 89; 29 l. T.436

446 v. Newton, 2 Cr. M. & R. 124 ; 1 Gale, 67 ; 5 Tyr. 736.

76 v. New Zealand Co., 4 Ex. D. 165 ; 40 L. T. 413

608 v. Reed, 3 T. R. 554 ; Eq. Cas. Ab. 319

672 WRIGHT v. STAVERT, 29 L. J. "Q. B. 101 ; 2 E. & É. 721 ; 8 W. R: 413: 337 Wrigley v. Smith, 5 B. & A. 1117; 3 N. & M. 181 Wulif v. Jay, L. 'R. 7 Q. B. 756'; 41 L. J. Q. B. 322 ; 27 L. T. 118; 20 W. R. 1030

494 Wyatt v. Hodson, 8 Bing. 309; 1 M. & Scott, 442

697 v. Met. B. of Works, 11 C. B. N. S. 744; 31 L. J. C. P. 217

298 Wyburd v. Stanton, 4 Esp. 179.

589 Wycherley v. Wycherley, Eden. 175

5 Wycombe R. Co. v. Donnington Hospital, L. R. 1 Ch. 268.

709 Union v. Eton Union, 1 H. & N. 687.

303 Wyke v. Rogers, 21 L. J. Ch. 611

490 Wyland's case, 3 Salk, 234

261 Wyld v. Pickford, 8 M. & W. 443

409, 411, 421, 428 Wylson v. Dunn, 34 Ch. D. 569 ; 56 L. J. Ch. 855 ; 56 L. T. 192 ; 35 W. R. 405 ; 51 J. P. 452 .

105 Wynn v. Shropshire Union R. Co., 5 Ex. 420

616

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X.

Xexos v. Danube, &c. R. Co., 13 C. B. N. S. 825

v. Wickham, L. R. 2 H. L. 296 ; 36 L. J. C. P. 313

618

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C.C.

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Y.

AGE YARBOROUGH 0. The Bank of England, 16 East, 6 ; 14 R. R. 272

298 YARMOUTH V. FRANCE, 19 Q. B. D. 647 ; 57’L. 'J. Q. B. 7; 36 W. R. 28i 523 Yates v. Aston, 4 Q. B. 182 ; 3 G. & D. 351

541 v. Boen, 2 Str. 1104

170 v. Eastwood, 6 Exch. 805 ; 20 L. J. Ex. 303

89 v. Freckleton, 2 Doug. 625

629 v. Hoppe, 9 Ć. B. 541 ; 14 Jur. 372 ; 19 1. J. C. p. iso.

70 v. Pim, i Holt, N. P. C. 95 ; 6 Taunt. 446 ; 16 R. R. 653

134 Yea v. Fouraker, 2 Burr. 1099 Yeo v. Dawe, 53 L. T. 125 ; 33 W. R. 739.

158 York, &c. R. Co. v. Crisp, 23 L. J. C. P. 125 ; 14 C. B. 527

429 Yorkshire Banking Co. v. Beatson, 5 C. P. D. 109

281 Young, Ex parte, 17 Ch. D. 668 ; '50 L. J. Ch. 824 ; 45 L. T. 90

183 v. Austen, L. R. 4 C. P. 553 ; 38 L. J. C. P. 233; 21 L. T. 327 ; 18 W. R. 63

135 v. Grote, 4 Bing. 253 ; 12 Moore, 484

55 YOUNG v. LEAMINGTON, 8 App. Cas. 517 ; 57 L. J. Q. B. 292 ; 49 L. T. 1 ; 31 W. R. 925

300

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Zouch v. Parsons, 3 Burr. 1794
Zunz v. S. E. R. Co., L. R. 4 Q. B. 539 ; 38 L. J. Q. B. 209 ; 20 L. T. 873432

ADDENDA.

At p. 222, as a second paragraph to note (x), add, The discretion under s. 39 of

the Conveyancing Act, 1881, to remove restraint will not be exercised to raise money for payment of debts arising from the extravagance of the married woman or her husband, or from loans by a professional money

lender : Pollard's Settlement, In re, (1890) 1 Ch. 901." At p. 368, as note to condition of s. 14, subs. 1, of the Sale of Goods Act, 1893,

add, “ Evidence of what took place prior to the making of a contract is aulmissible to raise the implication of this condition: Gillespie v. Cheney, [1896] 2 Q. B. 59;" and as note to proviso of the same sub-section, add, "A contract for the sale of coals under a particular description known in the

coal trade is not within this proviso. Ib.” At p. 539, and at p. 674, for “ The Limitation Act, 1633,” read, “The Limita

tion Act, 1623.” At p. 596, to note (1), add, “[1896] A. C. 166." At p. 718, add to note (o), “In Willson v. Love, 65 L. J. Ch. 474, C. A., it was

held that where a contract contains a condition for payment of a sum of money to secure the performance of several stipulations of varying degrees of importance, such sum is primâ facie a penalty, and not liquidated damages.”

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terms.

Sect. 1.-Definition of Terms. THE term Obligation is used by the Roman jurists, and by Definition of Pothier in the preliminary article to his treatise on Obligations, as denoting, in its proper and confined sense, erery legal tie which imposes the necessity of doing or abstaining from doing any act; and as distinguished from imperfect obligations,—such as charity and gratitude,—which impose a general duty, but do not confer any particular right; as well as from natural obligations, which, although they have a definite object, and are binding in conscience, cannot be enforced by legal remedy. English lawyers, however, generally use the word obligation in a more strict and technical sense, namely, as importing only one particular species of Contracts, that is, Bonds (a); and they adopt the term “ Contract " when they wish to convey the more extensive idea of the responsibility which results from the voluntary engagement of one individual to another, as distinguished from that class of liabilities which

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Contract.

CH. I. s. 1. originate in torts, or wrongs unconnected with agreement. In the

language of our law, therefore, the general term Contract comprises kinds of

every description of agreement, obligation, or legal tie, whereby one party binds himself, or becomes bound, expressly or impliedly, to another, to pay a sum of money, or to do or omit to do any particular act: whereas the term Corenant is properly applied, to denote a contract under seal; and the term Agreement is rarely used, except to denote a contract not under seal (1); whilst the term Promise is used to signify any mere parol engagement by one person with another, where there is no consideration for the promise, nor any corresponding duty on the part of him to whom it is made.

It is not, however, very material to consider the particular meaning which is generally attached to these various terms. The essential distinctions between the different kinds of contracts constitute a much more important subject of inquiry. These distinctions are clearly ascertained ; and-as they assign to each class of contracts attributes and consequences of the most marked character —they demand our notice before we discuss in detail the subject

matter of this ork. Different Contracts, then, or obligations er contractu, are of three descripkinds of

tions, and they may be classed, with reference to their respective contracts.

orders or degrees of superiority, as follow :-1. Contracts of Record ; 2. Specialties; 3. Simple Contracts.

Seot. 2.-Contracts of Record.

1st. Contracts or obligations of record consist of judgments, and recognizances (c); and these are of superior force, because they have been promulgated by, or are founded upon, the authority and have received the sanction of, a Court of Record (c). Their existence is in general triable only by an inspection of the record itself (f); no consideration is necessary to render

Contracts of record.

were

(6) And this is evidently its proper
meaning; for it clearly imports a re-
ciprocity of obligation ; which is not
essential in the case of contracts by
record or specialty. Com. Dig. Agree-
incnt, (A. 1), Plowd. 5 a, 6a.
Lord Ellenborough, Wain v. Wariters,
(1804) 5 East, 10 ; 7 R. R. 645 ; and
per Lawrence, J., Egerton v. Mattheus,
(1805) 6 East, 307 ; 8 R. R. 480.

(c) As to recognizances, see especially

See per

11 & 12 Vict. c. 42, s. 20, and Forms in Schedule (О 1), (Q 2) and (S). Amongst this class

also formerly “Statutes staple,” which have long been obsolete ; cf. Staple of England v. Governor and Company of Bank of England, (1887) 21 Q. B. D. 160, C. A. ; see the repealed 27 Ed. 3, c. 9.

(e) Co. Litt. 260 a.
(f) Co. Litt. 260 a.

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