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Mr. FELLOWS. Without objection, it may be incorporated at this point. (The statement of Gen. Mark W. Clark referred to is as follows:)
APRIL 17, 1948. I favor House Resolution bill 5004, which, when enacted into law will permit parents of nisei to become citizens of our Nation for which their sons fought and died.
The supreme test of citizenship is the willingness of a man to risk his life so that our country may live.
Under my command in Italy the Four Hundred and Forty-second Infantry Regiment and the One Hundredth Infantry Battalion, composed of nisei, fought the Nazi combat forces with the valor and skill characteristic of the young Americans that they are.
One of the brave number, Sadao S. Munemori, of Los Angeles, member of the battle-famous Four Hundred and Forty-second Infantry, symbolizes the gallantry of these Americans of Japanese ancestry in fighting for the liberty of our beloved country. In Italy he wiped out two enemy machine-gun nests and saved the lives of two of his companions by throwing himself on a hand grenade; this resulted in his death. He was awarded America's highest combat award-the United States Congressional Medal of Honor—and an American transport today bears his name.
Surely his parents and those of the other nisei, through the loyalty of their offspring, have earned the right to citizenship in the world's greatest nationa nation that distinguishes not at all between race, creed, or color.
As I recall the outstanding feats of valor in combat of the members of the Four Hundred and Forty-second Infantry and the One Hundredth Infantry Battalion, the number of Purple Hearts awarded to them because of wounds received in battle, and their extremely low hospital rate because of their eagerness to return to the line after having been wounded, I can only urge that the rights of citizenship in our great America be given to the parents who furnished us with such outstanding young manhood, men who willingly gave their all that America could live.
The parents of these heroic nisei should have the privileges of the democracy their sons helped to preserve.
MARK W. CLARK,
General, United States Army. Mr. JUDD. Here is a letter that takes up a different aspect of the question. The gentleman from Texas said the other day he thought without question there would be approval of the nonrecurring item in the bill, the providing of the privilege of naturalization to Japanese aliens or to all aliens legally admitted to this country for permanent residence, but there was perhaps a question as to the advisability of establishing quotas for the natives of countries now excluded.
This letter deals largely with that question. It is from Gen. Bonner Fellers, and he identifies himself in the letter. He says (reading]:
My name is Bonner Fellers. I served as a commissioned officer in the United States Army for 28 years. I have been a somewhat frequent visitor to Japan since 1922 and have studied the Japanese character rather thoroughly.
During World War II, as a brigadier general, I was psychological warfare officer and military secretary to Gen. Douglas MacArthur. I accompanied him from Brisbane, Australia, to Tokyo, Japan. I left Tokyo in July 1946.
I have first-hand, intimate knowledge of the service rendered by the nisei in General MacArthur's headquarters during operations against the Japanese, The loyalty of the nisei was absolute, and their willingness to go to the front where capture, even their presence, meant risk of their lives. I have the highest regard for the nisei and feel the United States owes them a debt of gratitude for the magnificent service which they rendered in the Pacific.
The Japanese are a proud and sensitive race. They regard our Exclusion Act of 1924 as a national insult; in my opinion, this Exclusion Act was one of the remote causes of the war. Japanese Christian friends in Tokyo advised me during the latter part of the 1920's that they personally, knowing the American people, realized they meant no insult in passing the Exclusion Act. At the same time, however, they said they were unable to explain it to their closest Japanese friends.
I am convinced the Exclusion Act was a mistake which should be corrected. This does not mean that I advocate large-scale Japanese immigration; quite to the contrary. Moreover, the Japanese neither expect nor desire this. What they do want is not to be discriminated against as a race. The United States as a Christian democratic country should give the Japanese this consideration.
The passage of H. R. 5004 would have a most beneficial effect among all Japanese people. Unless we blunder, we are rapidly winning the friendship of the Japanese. The passage of this bill will materially assist the objectives of our present military occupation. The day will come when we shall need the friendship of the Japanese. Passage of Ħ. R. 5004 therefore would not only correct an injustice but it would further our own national interest.
That is signed by Bonner Fellers, brigadier generai.
Mr. Chairman, I may state in passing, that our short-wave radio monitors report that the chief news on the Japanese radio out of Tokyo in the last 2 days has dealt with the hearings before this committee, which shows the importance that they attach to it, and its physchological value.
Now may I introduce, Mr. Chairman, a very excellent statement by Dillon S. Myer. As you doubtless know, Dillon Myer was Director of the War Relocation Authority for 4 years, from 1942 to 1946, and he had, under Mr. McCloy's direction, the immediate handling of the problem of the relocation centers.
Mr. FELLOWS. Without any objection, the document will be incorporated in the redord at this point.
(The statement of Dillon S. Nyer referred to is as follows:) STATEMENT OF D. S. MYER REGARDING H. R. 5004, THAT WOULD AMEND THE
NATIONALITY ACT OF 1940 To GRANT THE PRIVILEGE OF NATURALIZATION TO ALL IMMIGRANTS HAVING A LEGAL RIGHT to PERMANENT RESIDENCE
Mr. Chairman, the comments I have to make regarding the proposed legislation under consideration grow out of my experience as Director of the War Relocation Authority for a period of 4 years from 1942 to 1946. As you know, the War Relocation Authority was responsible for the maintenance and operation of relocation centers for the people of Japanese ancestry who were evacuated from the west coast early in 1942, and for providing assistance in the ultimate relocation of these evacuees.
In my final report relating to the work of the War Relocation Authority in 1946, I made the following statement regarding the naturalization laws of the United States:
"The history of the naturalization laws in this country is little known and widely misunderstood. One of the commonest errors, for example, is to assume that Japanese aliens were declared ineligible for naturalization in 1924 and because of that fact were subsequently barred from immigration. Precisely the reverse is true. Japanese aliens have never been eligible for naturalization as American citizens and it was this fact of ineligibility which was used to exclude them for immigration under the 1924 statute. Until the period immediately after the Civil War, the privilege of naturalization in the United States was confined exclusively to 'free white persons. Then in 1870 the statute was broadened to include 'persons of African descent or African nativity.' No further change was made until 1940, when the privilege was extended to ‘members of races indigenous to the Western Hemisphere.' In 1943 the previous absolute bar against all Orientals was lowered in the case of the Chinese. It still continues, however, in the case of all other Orientals.
“There are a great many reasons why this purely racial restriction should be removed from our naturalization laws. But perhaps the most important is that it has been used by racist elements in various Western States as the basis for discriminatory legislation which severely hampers thousands of people from making a living merely because their ancestors happened to be Japanese or Filipino or Hindu. The so-called alien land laws, for example, are nearly all phrased so that their provisions apply to "aliens ineligible for naturalization.'
Thus in these particular States, the Japanese alien, whose whole background and training may be agricultural, is prevented from engaging in farming, except as a paid laborer despite the fact that he may have had som in the American armed forces who have given up their lives for their country,
"WRA believes that this situation is wholly indefensible and recommends the passage of legislation which would extend the privilege of naturalization equalis to members of all the races of the world."
Since this statement was written, in early 1946, additional changes have been made in the immigration laws to grant the opportunity for immigration and naturalizat to Filipinos and to people from India. Furthermore, there has been recent court action relating to the alien land law in California which has had the effect of protecting Japanese-Americans of United States citizenship against the loss of their property.
In spite of the progress that has been made since 1946, I feel very strongly that the legislation under consideration is badly needed, both from the standpoint of principle and practice.
During the existence of the War Relocation Authority, those of us connected with it were in a position to experience the great complex of problems which resulted from the exclusion policy which was adopted in 1924; and in particular. the serious results of the much older policy which prevented immigrants of Oriental ancestry from becoming citizens of the United States through the process of naturalization. This policy laid the basis for a series of discriminatory laws which were passed in certain of the Western States, including the so-called alien land laws which excluded anyone who was not eligible for American citizenship from owning land.
Because of the adoption of this policy and the resulting discriminatory laws. the Japanese-American soldiers who fought as Americans in the last war could not, if they owned interest in lands in certain of the Western States, designate their alien fathers and mothers as beneficiaries in case of death because these alien parents were not eligible to own land. Many of these young Americans of Japanese ancestry volunteered for service in the American Army, either for intelligence work in the Pacific or as members of the Four Hundred and Fortysecond combat team, with the knowledge that their parents could not fall heir to any lands they might own, in case they were killed in battle. Japanese aliens in relocation centers, many of whom had lived in this country for 30 or 40 vears or more, dared not swear allegiance to the United States during the period of war for fear of losing their Japanese citizenship, with full knowledge that they could not attain American citizenship under our laws. Many of these same aliens rendered outstanding and essential war services, and while doing so they recognized the possibility that they might be returned after the war to their native country because of the fact that they could not obtain American citizenship.
There is a sizable group of people in this country who came in under special permits as students or ministers, and who have raised American families here. but are not eligible to remain in this country under the present laws, and they cannot attain American citizenship.
The legislation under consideration should, in my opinion, be passed. A great democracy such as ours should not continue to deny minimum quotas for immigration to any nation or area, based upon consideration of race. I further believe that anyone who is allowed to live permanently in the United States should be allowed the opportunity to qualify as a United States citizen in order to avoid the many complex problems which the present policy has made evident throughout the years. These problems are not only problems of the individuals affected, but they are problems which affect the country as a whole.
As a final word, I should like to state for the record what I learned, while I was Director of the War Relocation Authority, about the persons of Japanese ancestry who are living in the United States. The wartime evacuation from the west coast came to them as a sudden and terrible blow. More than 100,000 persons--men, women and children-were suddenly asked to leave their homes, their jobs, and their schools, and to take up residence in temporary assembly centers, and later in relocation centers, all under military guard. The War Relocation Authority called upon the evacuees to cooperate with the United States Government in this undertaking, and the evacuees responded magnificently. There were, of course, a few disturbances, both in the assembly centers and in the relocation centers, but the overwhelming majority of the evacuees accepted the burden that their Government asked them to carry, and complied peacefully with the requirements laid upon them. I am frank to state that the War Reloca tion Authority owes much of its success in the peaceful maintenance of the relocation centers, and in the subsequent relocation of the entire population of the centers, to the patient and loyal cooperation of the evacuees with their Government. During my 4 years in office, I visited the centers very frequently and I came to know these people rather well. I was impressed, as almost all other observers have been, with the thorough-going Americanism of the majority of the Nisei, who were born in the United States. They very fully demonstrated their loyalty in the exploits in this country's fighting forces. In addition, I unhesitatingly express my confidence that the Japanese aliens in this country are, in general, a hard-working, well-disciplined, and law-abiding group of people. Those who could qualify would do credit to their citizenship if the privilege of naturalization were extended to them.
Mr. Judd. Mr. Chairman, I should like permission to insert a statement by Richard J. Walsh, editor of Asia magazine, and a prominent member of a great many organizations which have worked for many years for better international relations. Incidentally, he is the husband of Pearl Buck. Maybe I should put it the other way around.
Mr. CELLER. He is distinguished in his own right.
Mr. JUDD. Yes indeed. But people from China know him as Pearl Buck's husband. Other countries know her as his wife.
May I insert that statement in the record? Mr. FELLOWS. Yes. ( The statement of Richard J. Walsh, referred to, is as follows:)
STATEMENT BY RICHAPD J. Walsh ? Others will urge H. R. 5004 as an act of simple justice, especially to persons who have long been loyal and useful residents of this country, and I heartily agree. But I shall confine my testimony to a few points of which I may have some particular knowledge.
For a good many years I have been a close student of the peoples of the countries of Asia. As book publisher, magazine editor, and writer it has been necessary for me to know what they think and do. I have many friends and a wide acquaintance among them, not only among the peoples of China and India, but also of Japan, Korea, Indonesia, Indochina, Siam and other smaller countries.
It is my firm conviction that the good will of the peoples of Asia is of the utmost importance to the future of the United States.
Half the people of the world are in Asia.
The natural resources of Asia are untold. Its raw materials are necessary to us; its potential markets for our exports are vast; its opportunities for our industrialists, technicians, and other experts are rich and varied.
It has also to offer to us ancient wisdom, religions, inspiration and philosophic concepts that we need sorely. The three greatest spiritual leaders in the world's history-Jesus Christ, Buddha, and Gandhi—all were Asians.
So on many counts we must have the friendship of the Asian peoples.
I need not stress how we have long undermined that friendship by our racial discrimination against them.
In 1943 I happened to be the active head of the campaign for the repeal of Chinese exclusion, and later took a lesser part in the work for the bill extending American citizenship to Indians. So I know how very much our country gained by the action of Congress in reducing the discrimination against Chinese and Indians.
But I also know that even they are not fully satisfied with their own improved status in our country, when they see that we continue to keep the ban upon other Asian peoples. The stigma of racial discrimination is still there. They smile a little at us, and rather sadly, for giving rights and privileges to the two countries that have population in the hundreds of millions, and still denying those rights and privileges to other countries whose peoples are their blood brothers.
Let us not forget that there was held in New Delhi last spring a great All-Asia Conference, sponsored by India and attended by delegates from almost every Asian country. One of the world's greatest statesmen, Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister of India, although he thinks first of all in terms of the world, thinks next in terms of regionalism in Asia.
1 Editor, Asia Magazine, 1933-46; chairman of editorial board, United Nations World; president, John Day Co., book publishers; chairman, executive committee, India League of America; president, AmericanChinese Committee of The Mass Education Movement; honorary president, Korean-American Cultural Association, Inc.; formerly chairman, Comınittee for Repeal of Chinese Exclusion; formerly president, India Famine Emergency Committee; and director, United Service to China.
This is true also of his friend, Soetan Sjahrir, the brilliant young leader who was first Premier of the Indonesian Republic, and who made such a profound impression when he appeared before the Security Council last autumn to argue the case of his people.
There is already a strong movement toward federation in southern Asia, which would include several of the countries against which we now discriminate. I do not mention this as something to fear, but only as evidence that the Asian peoples hang together pretty well, sharing one another's hopes, resentments, and friendships.
Therefore, I believe that the adoption of this measure will be an act only not of delayed justice to these people, but also of great advantage to the people of the United States in their future relations with all the countries of Asia.
Mr. Judd. I should like also to insert a letter from Dr. Walter W. Van Kirk of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America. He sent a letter in case he could not come and also sent a resolution adopted by the executive committee of the Federal Council of Churches.
Also, Mr. Chairman, I should like to have inserted a statement by C. Lloyd Bailey, associate secretary of the Friends Committee on National Legislation. The Friends Committee, as you know, has had ambulance units not only in Europe but in many parts of the Far East, and they have had opportunity to observe first-hand the relations between Americans and these peoples that are involved in this legislation.
And then, Mr. Chairman, two more. I should like permission to introduce an editorial from the St. Paul Dispatch on this matter, and also one from the Washington Post of this morning.
Mr. Fellows. Have you offered all those documents?
Mr. Judd. Yes. There are also, Mr. Chairman, resolutions from both the Los Angeles and the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. My friend and colleague, Mr. Gearhart, from California, had those, but apparently he forgot to have them inserted. I ask permission that they be inserted. The Los Angeles and the San Francisco Board of Supervisors have each unanimously passed a resolution approving this. That accounts for about two-thirds of the people in California.
Mr. Fellows. You mean approving the bill?
, yes, sir. Mr. Gearhart had the copies. May I ask permission for them to be inserted in the record?
Mr. FELLOWS. Without objection all these documents, which include letters and newspaper articles, will be incorporated as a part of the record, together with the resolutions to which you just referred.
(The matter referred to is as follows:) THE FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF CHRIST IN AMERICA, INC., DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE AND GoodwILL,
New York, N. Y., April 19, 1948. Hon. WALTER H. JUDD,
House Office Building, Washington, D. C. MY DEAR CONGRESSMAN Judd: The Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America supports the provision embodied in H. R. 5004 which would make immigration quotas available to Asiatic and Pacific peoples.
This provision of the bill is in accordance with the principles enunciated in the Federal Council's resolution of November 18, 1947, in which the hope was expressed that “the Congress of the United States will complete congressional action in removing the principle of discrimination in our immigration and naturalization laws respecting orientals, to the end that all oriental peoples, now racially ineligi