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TABLE 21.—Number of arrests of whites, Negroes, and persons of Japanese descent,
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1935, rate per 100,000 of population (excluding those under 15 years of age)
While the total number of arrests for violation of State laws has increased steadily since the midthirties, the number of persons of Japanese descent arrested has declined sharply since the end of the war. Table 22 compares the white, Negro, and Japanese groups. The war period has purposely been omitted because millions were serving at that time in the armed forces. TABLE 22.- Arrests for violation of State laws, white, Negroes, and Japanese, annual,
1934–40, 1946, and first 6 months of 1947
Commitments.- Not all persons arrested are committed to prisons and reformatories. While 520,000 persons were arrested for violating State laws in 1937, the United States Census Bureau found that a total of 63,552 prisoners were received by State and Federal prisons and reformatories that year. Although 228 persons of Japanese descent were arrested for violating State laws in 1937, a total of 17 were committed to State and Federal prisons and reformatories.
Table 23 shows the commitments to State and Federal prisons and reformatories during 1937. Of a total of 63,552 commitments, 72.9 percent were white, 26.0 percent were Negroes, 0.19 percent were Chinese, and 0.027 percent were Japanese. In the total population, whites accounted for 89.8 percent of the population, Negroes for 9.8 percent, Chinese for 0.06 percent, and Japanese for 0.1 percent.
TABLE 23.—Prisoners received by State and Federal prisons and reformatories from
courts, by type, commitment, sex, race, during the year 1937
West coast.-- In the Pacific States where 88.5 percent of all persons of Japanese descent were concentrated before the war, their crime rate was far less than that of other groups in the population. In California in 1938, 0.11 percent of the State's white population was in penal institutions, compared with 0.05 percent of those of Japanese descent, 0.70 percent of the Negroes, 0.15 percent of the Chinese, and 0.60 percent of the Filipinos.
A numerical analysis of the penal population in California, Washington, and Oregon follows:
TAPLE 24.- Penal inmates in the Pacific States, 1938–39
1 California: All 5 institutions, number of inmates in 1938.
Washington: State penitentiary at Walla Walla, admissions for 5 years ending Jan. 1, 1939.
The mentally ill
A survey in 1938 of the seven State hospitals for the mentally ill in California revealed a total of 22,305 inmates. Of these 20,750 were white, 682 were Negro, 200 were Chinese, 50 were Filipino, and 192 were Japanese. The percentage distribution of these inmates compared with the composition of the population of the State of California is shown below. In proportion to their numbers in the population, the whites and Japanese were underrepresented in California's mental hospitals. Negroes, Filipinos, and Chinese inmates were in greater proportion than their share of the State's population. TABLE 25.—Distribution of inmates of State mental hospitals, general population of
California, white, Negro, Chinese, and Japanese, 1998
Percent of Percent of
6 1.4 . 45
Source: Harry H. Laughlin, Conquest by Immigration, New York Chamber of Commerce, 1939.
Of the 2,612 first admissions into the State of Washington's three mental hospitals for the year ending September 30, 1938, 7 were of Japanese and 8 were of Chinese descent. Of the 1,299 residents in the East Oregon State Hospital in 1938, 1,283 were white, 1 was Negro, 2 were Chinese, 2 were Japanese, and 1 was Filipino. Economic opportunities barred to aliens
"Ineligible to citizenship" has worked hardship and humiliation. Those classified as, “aliens ineligible to citizenship,” who were already residents of the United States when the Immigration Act of 1924 became effective, have been subjected to various economic restrictions based upon their inability to become citizens. Some of these restrictions are enumerated below. These people who have not been permitted to change their status through naturalization have been allowed to remain in our house, but not of it."
In 23 States aliens are not permitted to work on public works projects. In 26 States they cannot receive old-age benefits. In 12 States they cannot buy or hold real estate. Some Federal public work relief laws, as did the 1938 Emergency Relief Appropriations Act, prohibit their employment. Most Government units are not permitted to hire them. Several State universities consider them as nonresidents and charge them high tuitions as “out-of-State students.” Some States charge them more for fishing and hunting licenses, while others prohibit them entirely from fishing or hunting.
More than 500 State laws are so worded as to exclude all who are not citizens or declarants from owning or leasing land, obtaining business licenses, gaining employment in various industries, practicing certain professions, and working for governmental units. Many local units of government also legislate against aliens. While such restrictions extend equally to all aliens, they are inescapable to the aliens from the Pacific and far eastern areas. For these people are "ineligible to citizenship” and cannot change their status.
Over 30 years ago, U. S. Webb, then attorney general of the State of California, and his law partner, Francis J. Heney, coauthored a bill to bar those "ineligible to citizenship” from owning land in California. The courts have upheld the law.
Since then, every State of the Union has at least one law discriminating against those who are not citizens or who have not declared their intention of becoming citizens. New York leads the list with 27 occupations restricted to citizens or declarants. On the other extreme are Maryland and Indiana, with only four occupations barred to those “ineligible to citizenship” and other aliens. A listing by States of the number of occupations currently restricted is shown below.
Table 26.-Number of occupations restricted to citizens, by States
A list of the various occupations which are restricted to citizens and the number of States having such restrictions is as follows:
TABLE 27.-Types of professions and occupations restricted to citizens
Profession or occupation
Profession or occupation
Number of States
2 39 1 1 14 IS 10 1 3 5 1 22
22 1 49
Life insurance agent
8 4 1 1 1 1 8 12
1 18 1 1 6 1 1
1 Includes District of Columbia.
I have a number of letters and resolutions representing the action of a variety of organizations. While we have made no particular effort to secure this sort of thing, these do represent a sampling of opinion in widely separated sections of the country. With your permission, Mr. Chairman, I should like to have these inserted in the record. These resolutions and letters cover the following organizations:
on Race Relations
YWCA, New York City
mittee, Portland, Oreg.
THE NATIONAL BOARD
OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
New York ,N. Y., February 17, 1948. Mr. ROPERT M. CULLUM, Committee for Equality in Naturalization,
Washington 1, D. C. DEAR MR. CULLUM: The YWCA at its convention in Atlantic City went on record as supporting immigration and naturalization policies free from racial discrimination. You may therefore list our organization as supporting this principle. Sincerely yours,
CONSTANCE W. ANDERSON
COMMON COUNCIL FOR AMERICAN
New York, N. Y., April 19, 1948.
STATEMENT IN CONNECTION WITH HEARINGS ON H. R. 5004
The Common Council for American Unity, by action of its board of directors, declares its conviction that the right to become a naturalized citizen of the United States should not be denied or abridged because of race and that our nationality laws should be amended to provide that all aliens having a legal right to permanent residence should be made eligible to naturalization. The council believes that such legislation is an act of justice to those aliens resident in the United States who are still denied citizenship because of race and that, in addition, it would strengthen our American position in the Far East and improve our international relations in general in the world-wide conflict between democracy and totalitarianism.
Because H. R. 5004 embodies such legislation and at the same time takes practicable steps toward eliminating racial discrimination from our immigration laws by making immigration quotas available to Asiatic and Pacific peoples, the Common Council for American Unity hopes that it or legislation embodying those principles will receive favorable consideration by Congress.
STATEMENT WEST Coast SPONSORS OF COMMITTEE FOR EQUALITY IN
NATURALIZATION, APRIL 17, 1948 Informed Americans generally agree that he Achilles heel in our ideological competition with the Soviet Union is American racial discrimination. But when "racial discrimination” is mentioned, most Americans think only of the Negroes within our borders. They overlook the fact that Soviet propagandists are constantly playing upon our denial of naturalization and of admissibility on the quota basis to many Asiatic peoples, and are thereby weaning them away from us and democracy.
Since 1943, our Congress has made a splendid beginning in patching up this Achilles heel by granting the rights of naturalization and admissibility by quota to the peoples of China, India, and the Philippines. It is not only logical but also most timely, to extend the same rights to Burma, Guam, Indonesia, Japan, and Korea.
Preoccupation with the European front should not blind us to the increasingly important Far Eastern front. Congress should be urged into action before it is