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Montana (telegram):

HELENA, July 19, 1944. Montana is fully in accord with equal rights amendment plank of Republican Party. In my opinion, knowing people of Montana as I do, our legislature would promptly ratify such an amendment.

SAM C. FORD, Governor. North Dakota (letter):

BISMARCK, May 9, 1945. It is a privilege and a pleasure to wholeheartedly endorse the equal rights amendment now pending in Congress. The amendment sets up a standard of justified equality for which we have been working for a long time.

FRED C. AANDAHL, Governor. Ohio (letter) :

COLUMBUS, February 18, 1948. I am glad to advise that I am in favor of the passage, by Congress, of the so-called equal rights amendment to eliminate any discrimination in our laws on account of sex. I am sure that Ohio will do her part in ratifying such a proposal.

THOMAS J. HERBERT, Governor. South Carolina (letter) :

COLUMBIA, February 11, 1948. The part American women have played throughout history cannot be overemphasized. Women and men together built America. In the pursuits of everyday life, women have given their energies to the fullest. In times of crisis, they have always answered the Nation's call. It is indeed anachronistic that women do not enjoy the same legal rights as

It is high time that the situation be rectified. Women, who have served side by side with men in peace and war, should not be penalized because of their sex.

I heartily endorse the proposed equal rights amendment to the United States Constitution.

J. STROM THURMOND, Governor. Utah (letter):

SALT LAKE CITY, August 30, 1944. I personally very much approve of the equal rights amendment to the Constitution and will do whatever I can to bring about its adoption. Utah has always taken a lead in promoting equal rights for women. While it was yet a Territory and long before most of the States in the Union realized the value of equal rights, Utah established women in their rightful place in government. Whatever we out here can do to assist the women of the Nation to enjoy the privileges they should, will be done. I think we will have no difficulty in convincing the legislature of our State to support the amendment.

HERBERT B. Maw, Governor. Minnesota (telegram):

ST. PAUL, February 25, 1948. I am very glad to give my endorsement to the proposed equal rights amend. ment of our National Constitution,

LUTHER W. YOU'NGDAHL, Governor. Vermont (letter) :

MONTPELIFR, September 26, 1946. You may be sure that I am unequivocally for the equal rights amendment to the Federal Constitution, and if elected, I shall support its ratification by the State Legislature.

ERNEST W. Gibson, Governor. Washington (letter):

OLYMPIA, June 15, 1945. This amendment meets with my hearty approval and I am very glad to give it my own endorsement.

Mon C. WALLGREN, Governor. West Virginia (letter):

CHARLESTON, June 14, 1945. It appears to me that the submission of an equal rights amendment to a vote of the people is highly desirable and fully justified in every respect.



Wisconsin (letter):

MADISON, September 1, 1917. It has been long recognized in the State of Wisconsin that women should have equal rights with men. It is my earnest conviction that there should never be discrimination shown between people because of sex. For this reason I am for the proposed equal rights amendment.

OSCAR RENNEBOHM, Acting Governor. Wyoming (telegram):

CHEYENNE, March 18, 1944. As Governor of the equality State which was the first to give women the right to vote, I heartily endorse the Lucretia Mott amendment to the Constitution granting equal rights to women,

LESTER C. HUNT, Governor.


('olorado (letter):

DENVER, July 11, 1944. I find myself in entire accord with the pronouncements of the Republican national platform for 1944. Consequently, I am only too glad to endorse the Equal Rights Amendment contained in that document.

JOHN C. VIVIEN, Governor. Idaho (letter) :

BOISE, July 10, 1944. I endorse wholeheartedly the equal rights amendment. Idaho early recognized the rights of woman suffrage and has consistently maintained its position well to the front in establishing newer fields of similar thought.

C. A. BOTTOLFSEN, Governor. Indiana (letter):

INDIANAPOLIS, January 29, 1944. I am pleased to tell you that I share your convictions on the proposed equal rights amendment to the Federal Constitution. I have no doubt that our party will incorporate a supporting plank in both the State and national Democratic platforms this year.

HENRY F. SCHRICKER, Governor. Iowa (letter) :

DES MOINES, April 15, 1944. Relative to the equal rights amendment I have always been for the amendment and as I told you in my former letter, I was instrumental in getting it into the Iowa platform.

B. B. HICKENLOOPER, Governor. Kansas' (letter):

TOPEKA, July 11, 1944. As one of the Republican governors who attended the Republican National Convention at Chicago, I want to say that I am back of the platform adopted by that great convention and you can count me in accordingly.

ANDREW F. SCHOEPPEL, Governor, Kentucky (letter):

LOUISVILLE, September 15, 1994. The Republican platform this year, consistently with the party's position for many years, endorsed the proposal for an equal rights amendment to the Federal Constitution. I endorsed this action at the national convention of the Federated Republican Women's Club at Louisville on September 8 of this year.

It is my hope that the Congress may submit this amendment promptly and that it may be ratified by every State in the Union. Unfortunately, I cannot predict the action of the General Assembly of Kentucky to be elected next year, but I shall endeavor to persuade that body of the justice and propriety of prompt approval.

SIMEON WILLIS, Governor. Maine (letter):

AUGUSTA, July 19, 1944. I am happy to add my personal endorsement to the platform plank adopted by the Republican National Convention favoring submission to the States of an amendment to the Constitution, providing equal rights for men and women.

I firmly believe that job opportunities in the postwar world should be open to men and women alike, without discrimination in rate of pay because of sex.

SUMNER SEWALL, Governor. Maryland (letter):

ANNAPOLIS, July 31, 1944. It is a pleasure to me to endorse, unqualifiedly, the equal rights plank in the national democratic platform as I believe that it is a definite step forward in respect to our consideration of woman's part in the economic, social, and political life of the Nation.

It has been my conviction that discrimination provisions which adversely affect the women of our country are un-American and entirely out of step with the times. The Democratic Party now stands foursquare on this important subject and I am highly gratified at the favorable action in this regard.

HERBERT R. O'CONOR, Gorernor. Massachusetts (letter) :

BOSTON, August 8, 1944. If successful in my candidacy for the United States Senate in November, I shall hope to support the platform on which I am elected, including this plank for action on an amendment for equal rights for men and women.



BOSTON, July 18, 1945. Measures which secure for all the citizens of our Nation for fuller enjoy. ment of equality of opportunity and equality before the law should receive the enthusiastic support of Americans from all walks of life. The adoption of such affirmative measure will accomplish more in mitigating, suppressing, and elimi. nating the insidious movements and influences which are as ever present threat to the unity and strength of our people than any other steps we may take. The equal rights amendment is a forward step for closer national unity, and I endorse it wholeheartedly.

MAURICE J. TOBIN, Governor. Michigan (letter):

LANSING, August 4, 1944. The equal rights plank adopted by the Republican National Convention June 27, 1944, has my support.

HARRY F. KELLY, Governor. Minnesota (letter) :

ST. PAUL, June 9, 1945. I assure you that the equal rights amendment would have my full support.

EDWARD J. THYE, Governor. North Dakota (letter) :

BISMARCK, August 2, 1944. I was a member of the platform and the resolutions committee of the Democratic National Convention, and supported the amendment in the committee. I believe it is fair and just, and I believe it ought to be enacted into law.

John Moses, Governor. Oklahoma (letter):

OKLAHOMA CITY, October 4, 1944. I am glad to inform you that the amendment has my unqualified endorsement. l'or your information, I am glad to advise you that my own State of Oklahoma adopted a constitutional amendment, voted on by the people in 1942, giving to women equal rights with men to hold any office within the State from governor down. At that time I was candidate for governor and the amendment had my wholehearted support.

ROBERT S. KERR, Governor. Oregon (telegram):

SALEM, July 19, 1944. Endorse woman's equal rights Republican platform plank. Oregon has adopted laws in this direction, including community-property law similar to Oklahoma law, provision for the property rights of married women, protection and sole control of a married woman's separate property, and the repeal of civil disabili. ties. Cannot, of course, speak for legislature but believe if amendment passed by Congress, Oregon Legislature likely would look with favor upon question of ratification. Surely a Republican Congress would support the platform of the Republican National Convention.

EARL SNELL, Governor. Pennsylvania (letter):

HARRISBURG, 1945. I have always believed in equal rights and in Pennsylvania much legislation has been passed indicating our feeling on this important subject. I favor the accomplishment of this constitutional amendment.

EDWARD MARTIN, Governor. Rhode Island (letter):

PROVIDENCE, August 15, 1944. I am happy to endorse this measure which the Democratic Party has seen fit to include in its Democratic Party platform.

J. HOWARD MCGRATH, Governor. (Letter]

PROVIDENCE, October 17, 1945. I am happy to endorse the equal-rights amendment to the Constitution of the United States. I sincerely hope that it may soon be submitted to the States for ratification.

JOHN 0. PASTORE, Governor. South Carolina (letter):

COLUMBIA, September 7, 1944. I wish to endorse fully the equal-rights plank for women in the national Democratic platform. This is a step forward in regards to the consideration of women's participation in the life of our country. I am very pleased that the Democratic Party stands solidly in favor of this action.

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, Governor. [Letter]

COLUMBIA, June 2, 1945. You may rest assured that you have my full cooperation in the equal-rights amendment.

RANSOME J. WILLIAMS, Governor. South Dakota (letter):

PIERRE, July 27, 1944. The principle of equal pay for equal service commends itself to anyone as a matter of natural justice or equity, and really needs no endorsement. Its words and meaning carry their own endorsement. On the broader part of the plank, specifying equal rights for men and women, will say that I favor that also and for the same reasons.

M. Q. SHARPE, Governor. Vermont (letter):

MONTPELIER, May 3, 1944. I feel that the equal-rights amendment is a recognition which is past due to the women of America. I am glad to endorse this amendment. I sincerely hope that it will soon be submitted to the States for ratification. Please count on me for any support which I can lend to this very worthy cause.

WILLIAM H. WILLS, Governor. The Honorable Mortimer H. Proctor, former Governor of Vermont, endorsed the amendment in 1945. Washington (telegram):

OLYMPIA, July 19, 1944. I strongly endorse the equal rights or so-called Lucretia Mott amendment to the Federal Constitution. Our State has long occupied a forward position in the matter of granting equal rights to women as is evidenced by our very liberal community property laws and also by the fact that our last legislature enacted a bill prohibiting discrimination as between sex in the payment of wages for similar services. I believe that if this amendment were to be submitted to the States by Congress our State legislature would have no hesitancy in ratifying the amendment.


Wisconsin (letter):

MADISON, March 1947. That women should have equal rights with men has long been recognized by the State of Wisconsin. It is my conviction that they should not be subject to discrimination on account of sex, as provided for in the proposed equal rights amendment.




The Senate Judiciary Committee which favorably reported the proposed equal rights amendment in the 1946 session of Congress, had before it this brief (Senate committee print, 75th Cong., 1st sess.).


The proposition laid down in this amendment (i. e., that all citizens should have equal rights) is a fundamental principle of republican government.

It seems strange that there should be any question that all citizens of a republic should have equal rights. Our Supreme Court has repeatedly enunciated this great principle. For example:

"The equality of the rights of citizens is a principle of republicanism. Every republican government is in duty bound to protect all its citizens in the enjoyment of this principle, if within its power” (U. S. v. Cruikshank, 92 U. S. 542, 555).

These are the words of Chief Justice Waite, one of the greatest jurists who ever sat upon the bench of our Highest Court. The same principle has been enunciated in hundreds of cases in the Supreme Court and other Federal courts and in the State courts of this country.


Although women are now citizens in the fullest sense of the word, although they enjoy all the rights of suffrage, nevertheless, there have been, and still are, many instances of the grossest inequality in the rights accorded to women as contrasted with those of men under our laws.

It is perfectly ckar and obvious that these inequalities between the rights of women and those of men are in patent violation of this fundamental principle which we have just mentioned. The origin of these discriminations is to be found in the “time-honored legal status of subjection which women in this country inherited from England through the common law.”

At the common law which was in force at the time of the adoption of our Constitution in 1789, women were in effect regarded as chattels of their husbands or fathers or of the State. So far as married women were concerned, the legal existence of the wife was merged in that of her husband. As Blackstone said, "The liusband and wife are one and that one is the husband." That is, of course, familiar and undisputed law which does not require to be argued or stressed. The history of this country since the adoption of the Constitution has been largely a chronicle of the progress of women on the road to equality with men. Their emergency from subjection has been slow and painful. They have been held back by all the powerful forces of ignorance and of selfish reaction. But, although the advance has not been swift, although it has been uneven with periods of retrogression, yet on the whole the road has led ever forward and upward toward the ideal of perfect equality in all human rights.


Although the fourteenth amendment and the nineteenth amendment did not afford relief to women from discrimination, it was hoped that the Supreme Court, following the liberal tendencies which it had shown, would give such relief by holding these discriminatory laws to be an unconstitutional interference with the liberty of contract, but that hope has been destroyed by the decision of the Supreme Court in "WestcoastHotel Company v. Parish (300 C. S. 379).

In the West Coast case Chief Justice Hughes and Justices Brandeis, Stone, Cardozo, and Roberts held the law of the State of Washington fixing the mini

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