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TABLE 62.- Per cent of males 21 years of age or over working for wages who are affiliated

with trade unions, by locality and by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The

totals, however, are for all races.)

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The above table shows a very small proportion of either native or foreign-born employees to be affiliated with labor organizations, although in each locality, excepting Kansas City, a considerably smaller percentage of foreign-born, as compared with native-born, are members of trade unions. In Kansas City only 0.8 per cent of foreignborn are trade unionists but no native-born. Upon comparing the totals, it is seen that the employees in Chicago, both of native and foreign birth, are more extensively affiliated with labor organizations than in either of the other two localities. With the exception of the Germans in Kansas City, who show only 1.9 per cent of their number to be members of labor organizations, practically no interest among the employees in trade unionism is shown in that city. On the other hand, none of the Germans in South Omaha are connected with unions, while 4.8 per cent of the persons native-born of native father, 2.5 per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians, and 1.7 per cent of the Poles in that city are labor unionists.

The relation between period of residence and interest in labor unions is set forth in the following table, which shows according to years in the United States and race of individual affiliation with trade unions of foreign-born males 21 years of age or over, in the households studied, who were working for wages:

TABLE 63.- Affiliation with trade unions of foreign-born males 21 years of age or over

who are working for wages, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 200 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Although the proportions in any case in the above table are small, yet they clearly show an increased tendency toward affiliation with labor organizations according to extension of residence in the United States, 0.9 per cent of the total with a residence of less than five years being members of trade unions, as compared with 2.7 per cent of a residence from five to nine years, and 3.2 per cent with a residence of ten vears or over. In the case of Bohemians and Moravians and Croatians, however, which are the only two races reporting in sufficient numbers for the computation of percentages, a tendency in the opposite direction is shown, the proportion of each race of the longer period of residence who are affiliated with trade unions being smaller as compared with the proportion shown by those who have been in the United States less than five years.

Since the strike in 1904 in Chicago, with the exception of the teamsters' union, the large packing houses have refused to treat with organized labor. This has resulted in the majority of employees losing interest in their various organizations, which loss of interest has been accompanied with a corresponding decrease in membership. By the more conservative and better-informed members of these unions it is said that the possibility of organizing the labor of the industry as it once was is very remote. The more recent immigrants to this country are not equally distributed by races in each of the several unions that are in any way connected with the packing industry; for example, in the cattle butchers' union the Bohemians largely predominate over any other of the more recent. immigrant races, while in the hog butchers' and sheep butchers' organizations the Poles have a larger representation than the Bohemian and other

With the exception of the two races just mentioned, the representatives of other races who are members of these unions are so

races.

few in numbers as to be a negligible factor. As previously stated, these unions have been so weakened since the strike of 1904 that the entire membership is only a very small per cent of the actual number engaged in the occupations which they cover. It is not necessary for the immigrant to take out first naturalization papers prior to becoming a member of any of these unions. With the exception of the Bohemians and Poles, especially the Bohemians, there is said to exist a very decided indifference on the part of the other races toward connecting themselves with the unions. This indifference is more noticeable among the Lithuanian employees than among employees of other races. Some employers contend that the immigrants have been forced to join the unions, but this is strongly denied by representatives of labor organizations. The active membership in the unions is composed principally of those immigrants who speak the English language. When the more recent immigrants first entered the Chicago slaughtering and meat-packing industry, the feeling against them on the part of labor unionists was very strong. This spirit of animosity has undergone a remarkable change, with the result that, instead of condemning all immigrants, as formerly, they classify them by races as good or bad, and are accordingly favorable or hostile as the individual race in their opinion warrants. Labor organizations at present are very favorable to the Bohemian race and to many individual Poles, but unfavorable to the Lithuanians, Greeks, and Italians. The labor unionists deny strongly that immigrants have ever been coerced in any way. As a matter of selfpreservation, the labor unionist is anxious that the immigrants affiliate with the unions. Labor organizations claim that they have made an effort wherever possible to interest the immigrant in acquiring a knowledge of the English language and in raising his standard of living, believing that if this can be done the unions have a much better chance to secure higher wages.

CHAPTER V.

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

Rent in its relation to standard of living-Boarders and lodgers-Size of apartments

occupied-Size of households studied— Congestion—Text Tables 64 to 90 and General Tables 27 to 38).

RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING.

The monthly rent payments of the households of the employees of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry are chiefly significant in their bearing upon prevailing standards of living and living arrangements. This fact is disclosed by the following series of tables exhibiting the average and range of monthly rent payments for apartments, rooms, and persons. The first table, which immediately follows, shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average monthly rent payments, per apartment, per room, and per capita.

Table 64.--Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOC SEHOLDS.)

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In the foregoing table the total foreign-born exhibit a lower rent payment per apartment and per person and a higher payment per room than the total native-born or the native-born whites of native father, while the second generation, or native-born of foreign father, show a lower average rent per apartment and per room than the

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