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CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States--General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied-General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied—The first and second generations compared-Occupations entered by immigrants in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry-Daily earnings Relation between period of residence and earning ability-Annual earnings of male heads of families studiedAnnual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studiedAnnual family income-Wives at work-Female members of households studied who were at work-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers-Sources of family income-Relatíve importance of the different sources of family income-[Text Tables 16 to 57 and General Tables 6 to 25).

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSE

HOLDS STUDIED.

For an intelligent study of the present economic status of the immigrant labor in the slaughtering, and meat-packing industry, an investigation of the industrial condition of the foreign-born before coming to the United States, differing as it did among the various races, is almost essential. The series of tables which follows shows the industrial condition abroad of the large numbers of foreign-born who reported complete data. The first tables are concerned with the females in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming.

TABLE 16.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females

who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.)

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Table 17.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who uete 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.)

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Of the 725 females in the households studied from whom information was obtained, 55.7 per cent were without occupation abroad, 22.6 per cent worked for

wages,

17.9
per

cent without wages, and the remaining proportion for profit. Of those working for wages, the North Italians, Swedes, Bohemians and Moravians, and Poles show proportions considerably above the general average, while the Slovaks, Irish, Lithuanians, and Croatians show proportions considerably below that figure. No Lithuanians or Swedes, and only small pro

. portions of the Bohemians and Moravians and North Italians, worked without wage before coming to the United States. No Irish, Slovaks, or Swedes, and only 0.6 per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians, worked for profit, while the Poles, with 9.1 per cent so engaged, show a larger proportion than the Croatians, North Italians, Germans, or Lithuanians, in the order named. As regards those who were without occupation, the Lithuanians, with 89.7 per cent; show the largest pro tion and the Poles, with 35.5 per cent, the smallest. The per cents of the other races range from 76.9 of the Irish to 42.9 of the North Italians.

Of the females who were working for wages, more than one-half, or 12 per cent, of their entire number reporting in the table were in domestic service. The next largest number were farm laborers and only 3.6 per cent were in other lines of work. All of those who were working without wages were farm laborers, and of the 27 who were working for profit, 23 were farmers and only 4 were in other occupations. Each race, except the Slovak, shows a certain proportion, ranging from 18.2 per cent of the Poles to 1.8 per cent of the Croatians, to have been farm laborers for wages; each, except the Irish, shows a certain proportion ranging from 26.9 per cent of the Swedish to 1.8 per cent of the Croatians to have been in domestic service for wages; and several races show certain of their number to have been working for wages as factory operatives, in hand trades, and in other occupations.

Of the females working as farm laborers, without wages, the Croatians show the largest proportion, their 36.1 per cent being followed by the 29.2 per cent of the Slovaks. No Lithuanians and no Swedes are here reported, and the Bohemians and Moravians have only 4.3 per cent and the North Italians but 4.8 per cent in this classification. Of those working for profit, each race, except the Croatian, Lithuanian, and Polish, shows the entire proportion to have been farmers.

The Croatians and Poles show a few persons in other occupations, and the Lithuanians show the entire proportion to have been in other lines of work, none being reported as farming for profit.

The industrial condition and occupation before coming to the United States of the males in the households studied is next presented, by race of individual. Table 18.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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TABLE 19.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

Per cent working for wages.

Per cent work
ing without

wages.

Per cent work ing for profit.

Race of individual.

Bohemian and Mora

vian.
Croatian.
Gerinan.
Irish...
Italian, North.
Japanese
Lithuanian.
Polish.
Slovak
Swedish.

186 4.3 23.7 1.6 9.7 14.0 11.3 4.8 65. 1 14.0
260 1.2 1.2

.8

.0 4.2 2.3 2.7 11.2 63.8 111 2.7 | 7.2

5.4 2.7 15.3 6.3 9.9 46.8 27.0 39 10.3 15. 4 10.3 2.6 .0 .0 15.4 13.6 35.9 22 .0 31.8 4.5 13.6 13.6 4.5 18.2 86. 4 9.1 74 13.5 .0 1.4 .0 .0 .0 16.2 17.6 36.5 35 .0 42.9 .0 .0 2.9 2.9 .0 48.6 20.0 144 2.8 20.1 2.8 .0 7.6 2.8 6.9 40.3 31.0 22 .0 27.3 .0 .0 9.1 .0 .0 36.4 36.4 26 11.5 23.1 3.8 3.8 19.2 7.7 11.5 69.2 11.5

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Information was obtained in this investigation for 984 foreign-born males, of which 40.2 per cent worked for wages before coming to the United States, 35.7 per cent without wages, and 20.2 per cent for profit, while 3.9 per cent were without occupation. With the exception of the Slovaks, Japanese, and Croatians, each race shows a proportion working for wages abroad in excess of the general average for all males, the proportions ranging from 86.4 per cent of the North Italians to 40.3 per cent of the Poles. Of those reporting proportions below the average for all males, the Slovaks, with 36.4 per cent, are considerably in advance of the Japanese, with 17.6 per cent, and the Croatians, with 11.2 per cent. Of those working without wages the

of North Italians, with 9.1 per cent, show the smallest proportion, followed by the 15.1 per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians and 15.4 per cent of the Swedes. The Croatians, with 63.8 per cent working without wages, have the largest proportion, followed by the 38.5 per cent of the Irish, the 36.5 per cent of the Japanese, and the 36.4 per cent of the Slovaks. Of those who worked for profit abroad, the proportions of Swedes, North Italians, and Irish are low as compared with the proportions shown by the other races. The Japanese, with 32.4 per cent, and the Lithuanians, with 31.4 per cent, show the largest proportions working for profit. No North Italians, Lithuanians, or Slovaks were without occupation abroad, but the Japanese, Swedes, and Irish have considerable per cents so reported.

Of the foreign-born males who worked for wages abroad, more than one-third were farm laborers. The next largest number were in hand trades, and the next in occupations not specified. Only 2.8 per cent of all the males reporting, or 1 in 14 of those who worked for wages, were in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry before coming to the United States. The North Italians have the largest proportion so reported, their 13.6 per cent being followed by the 9.7 per cent of Bohemians and Moravians. Five races report none of their males previously employed in this industry. The Lithuanians were 42.9 per cent farm laborers for wages, and the North Italians have 31.8 per cent so reported. No Japanese and only 1.2 per cent of the Croatians worked on the farm for wages. The Irish show the greatest proportion of common laborers, the Swedes the greatest proportion in the hand trades, the Bohemians and Moravians in the factory operatives, and the North Italians the largest proportions in occupations not specified.

Almost all of the males who worked without wages were farm laborers, the proportion so employed being 34.5 per cent of all the persons reporting, while those in other occupations were 1.2 per cent of the whole.

The Croatians had 63.8 per cent of their males working as farm laborers without wages, in contrast with 36.5 per cent of the Japanese, who follow. Seventeen and six-tenths per cent of all the males here tabulated were engaged in farming for self, and 2.6 per cent were working for profit in other occupations than farming.

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING

TO THE UNITED STATES.

The occupations abroad of the large numbers of employees now in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry are exhibited in the following tables, the first of which, with its chart, shows the returns from 20,687 males, and the second those from 644 females:

TABLE 20.- Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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58.4

16.7

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