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TABLE 238.—Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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The totals in the table above exhibit a larger proportion of persons who can read and both read and write, in the longer periods of residence in the United States as compared with the shorter. In the case of the several races, the same tendency is shown, with the exception of the Croatians, the percentage of persons of this race who can read, or who can read and write, and who have been in the United States 10 years or over, being smaller than the proportion for the shorter residence periods. As a whole, however, the table clearly indicates an increase in literacy among the foreign-born persons corresponding to the time which they have been in the United States.

A comparison is made in the table next presented of the degree of literacy at the present time of younger and older immigrants, according to age on arrival in this country. The table shows, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over within the households studied, who could read, and per cent who could both read and write.

TABLE 239.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per

cent who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Of a total of 768 persons reporting complete data, the above table shows that 89 per cent of those who were under 14 years of age

and 72.2 per cent of those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States read, as compared with 86.8 per cent of

48296'_VOL 13-11-21

those who were under 14 years of age and 71.5 per cent of those who were 14 years of age or over, at time of coming to the United States, who both read and write. The Croatians and Germans show that 76.9 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively, of those who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States read and both read and write, while a slightly larger proportion of those who were 14 years age or over at time of coming to the United States read than both read and write. The Poles show a slightly larger proportion of each specified age at time of coming to the United States who read than both read and write.

of

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the per cent of male employees in Kansas City who were 20 years of age or over and who were in each conjugal condition.

TABLE 240.--Per cent of male employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition,

by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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In the above table a slight majority of the 6,056 males studied are married, and but 4.4 per cent widowed. The proportions of the foreign-born are very similar, but the proportion of single men is much lower in the case of the native-born of native father and correspondingly higher in the case of the native-born of foreign father.

Excepting the Greeks, Lithuanians, Poles, and Servians, the majority of each foreign race are married. A bare majority of each of the four races mentioned are single, as well as large proportions of each of the other races. None of the Lithuanians, and less than 12 per cent of any other race, are widowed.

It will be noted that the smallest proportions of single men are reported by the old immigrant races, native-born of native father, the largest proportions of widowed being reported by the old immigrant

The following table subdivides the one preceding, and shows by age groups and by general nativity and race of individual the per cent of male employees in each conjugal condition: Table 241.- Per cent of male employees in each conjugal condition, by age groups and

by general nativity and race.

races.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Native-born of native
father:
White..

618 52.8 45.8 1.5 611 17.777.6 4.7 337 4.7 82.8 12.51,566 28.7 66.2 5.1 Negro..

409 56.0 39.6 4.4 391 18.2 75.2 6.6 153 4.6 80.4 15.0 953 32.2 60.8 7.0 Native-born of foreign

father, by country of birth of father: Germany

83 72.3 26.5 1.2 85 15.380.0 4.7 37 13.5 81.1 5.4 205 38.0 58. 5 3. 4 Ireland.

69 76.8 21.7 1.4 94 43.6 53.2 3.2 4814. 670.8 14.6 211 47.9 46.9 5. 2 Foreign-born,by race: Croatian.

563 62.2 37.7 .2 292 11.6 87.3 1.0 49 2.0 91.8! 6.1 904 42.6 56.6 .8 German..

72 66.7 33.3 .0 127 16.5 79.5 3.9 140 5.7 82.1 12.1 339 22.7 70.8 6.5 Greek

114 77.2 22.8 .0 63 14.3 85.7 .0 11 18.2 72.7 9.1 188 52.7 46.8.5 Irish

37 83.8 16.2 .0 78 29.5 61.5 9.0 80 7.5 76.3 16.3 195 30.8 59.0 10.3 Polish.

175 72.6 27.4 .0 95 18.978.9 2.1 1915. 8 78.9 5.3 289 51.2 47.8 1.0 Russian. 85 69.4 30.6 .00 54 11.1 83.3 5.6

7 (a)

146 45.2 52.7 2.1 Slovenian 50 66.0 32.0 2.0 44 25.0 72.7 2.3

8 (2)

(2) (a) 102 43. 1 54.9 2.0 Grand total.... 2,697 63.0 35.8 1.22, 27918.0 77.8 4.31.080 7.0 80.5 12.5 6,056 36.1 59.5 4.4

(a)

(a)

Total native-born of

foreign father. 237) 73.4 25.3 1.3 243 27.2 69.5 3.3 Total native-born 1.264 57.7 40.0 2.4 1.245 19.7) 75.3 5.1 Total foreign-born.... 1,433 67.8, 32.1 -11,034 16.0 80.8/ 3. 3|

114 14.9 74.6 10.5 594 43.3 52.9 3.9 604 6.6 80.6 12.73,113 32.6 62.0 5.5 476 7.6 80.3 12.22, 943 39.8 57.03.2

7.6) 80.3

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

In this locality 35.8 per cent of the males from 20 to 29 years of age, for whom information was secured, are married, as compared with 77.8 per cent of the males from 30 to 44 years of age, 80.5 per cent of the males 45 years of age or over, and 59.5 per cent of all males 20 years of age or over. Of the individuals from 20 to 29 years of age 1.2 per cent are widowed, as compared with 4.3 per cent of those from 30 to 44 years of age and 12.5 per cent of those 45 years

of
age
or over.

The proportion of married individuals from 20 to 29 years of age is largest for the native-born of native father, white, and smallest for the native-born of foreign father. The proportion of individuals from 30 to 44 years of age who are married is largest for the foreign-born, and smallest for the native-born of foreign father. The proportion of married individuals 45 years of age or over is largest for the native-born of native father, white, slightly larger for the native-born of native father, negro, than for the foreign-born, and smallest for the native-born of foreign father. Of the foreign-born, the Croatians, Germans, and Slovenians, in the order mentioned, have the largest, and the Irish the smallest, proportion of married individuals from 20 to 29 years of age. The Croatians, Greeks, and Russians, in the order mentioned, have the largest, and the Irish and Slovenians the smallest, proportion of married persons from 30 to 44 years of age; and the Croatians, Germans, and Polish, in the order mentioned, have the largest, and the Greeks the smallest, proportion of individuals 45 years of age or over who are married. The proportion of widowed employees is largest among

the Irish and Germans 45 years of age or over. The following table shows, by sex and age groups, and by general nativity and race of individual, the per cent of persons in the households studied who were in each conjugal condition:

Table 242.--Per cent of persons in each conjugal condition, by sex and age groups, and

by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Total native-born of foreign

father.. Total native-born Total foreign-born...

11 18.2 81.8
31 12.987.1
141 4.3 95.7

.0 3 (a) (a) (a)
.0 26! .0 100.0 .0
.0 104 .0 100.0 .0

3 (a) (a) (a) 17 11.888.2 (a)

63 6.3 92.1 1.6 33 .0 81.8 18.2 278 2.2. 95.7 2. 2

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Table 242.Per cent of persons in each conjugal condition, by sex and age groups, and

by general nativity and race of individualContinued.

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved. It appears, from the data presented in the above table, that 63.5 per cent of the males and 94.2 per cent of the females from 20 to 29 years of age are married, as compared with 98.4 per cent of the males and all of the females from 30 to 44 years of age, 97.1 per cent of the males and 82.1 per cent of the females 45 years of age or over, and 82.9 per cent of all males and 95 per cent of all females 20 years of age or over. The proportion of widowed individuals, , both males and females, is largest in the case of those who are 45 years of age or over. It will be noted that a much larger proportion of females than of the males are widowed.

In all the age groups a larger proportion of the native-born males of native father than of the foreign-born males are married, while the proportion of all females 20 years of age or over who are married is slightly larger for the foreign-born than for the native-born of native father. Of the foreign-born, the Poles and Croatians have a larger proportion of males from 20 to 29 and from 30 to 44 years of age, respectively, who are married than have the Germans. The Poles and Germans have a larger proportion of married males 45 years of age or over than have the Croatians.

All of the Croatian females in each age group and all of the German and Polish females from 30 to 44 years of age are married. The proportion of married females from 20 to 29 years of age is larger for the Poles than for the Germans.

Although a large proportion of the foreign-born males are married, many left their wives and families in their native countries. This fact is found in the table next presented which shows by race of husband the per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife in the United States and per cent who report wife abroad.

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