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THE NEW YORK
PUBLIC LIBRARY

ASTOR, LENOX AND TILDEN FOUNDATIONS.

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PART I.-GENERAL SURVEY OF THE SLAUGHTERING AND MEAT

PACKING INDUSTRY.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Growth and localization of the industry-Localities studied-Households studied

Members of households for whom detailed information was secured—Employees for whom information was secured—[Text Tables 1 to 8 and General Tables 1 to 3).

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The slaughtering and meat-packing industry has been marked by a rapid development during the past forty years. The States where the greatest expansion has occurred have been Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska, and the communities where the industry has had its greatest establishment and growth have been Chicago and East St. Louis, Ill. ; Hammond, Ind.; St. Joseph, Mo.; Kansas City, Kans.; and South Omaha, Nebr. The following table shows for the country as a whole the increase in the capital invested and the growth in the number of the persons employed in slaughtering and meat-packing stablishments for the period 1870 to 1905, according to its census Jeriods, and also exhibits the status of the industry in representative States during the year 1905.

TABLE 1.--Growth of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry in the United States,

1870 to 1905, and status of the industry in selected States, 1905.

(Compiled from Special Census Reports, 1905. Manufactures, Part III, Table 1, p. 459; Table 5, p. 463;

Table 14, pp. 484-491.)

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t'nited States.

4, 468
2, 945

990

California.
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Massachusetts.
Minnesota..
Missouri.
New Jersey.
All other States.

1905 1900 1890 1880 1870 1905 1905 1905 1905 1905 1905 1905 1905 1905 1905

929 $237, 714, 690 $913,914, 624

882 188, 800, 181 783,779, 191
1,118 116,887, 504 561, 611.668

872 49, 419, 213 303, 562, 413
768 24, 224, 692 75, 826.500
59 4,835, 578 21,795. 694
68 80, 477, 268 317, 206, 082
42 7,358, 006 29, 352,593
19 7, 297.359 30,07 4,070
22

25,332, 330 96. 375, 639
42 12, 755, 034 37,098, 502
24 3, 421,533 17,526, 707
33 16, 425, 899 60, 031, 133

2,335, 477 17, 238, 076 581 77, 476, 206 287, 216, 128

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202

14
2,700

284
130
688
21
21
41

2
564

974 1,667

700 1, 184 258

9 80 49 137 322 28

8 49

39

292

The extent to which the industry has expanded may be quickly seen from the fact that in 1870 the capital invested was only

° $24,224,692 and the annual value of products $75,826,500, as compared with a capital commitment of $237,714,690 in 1905 and an annual output to the value of $913,914,624. The average number of wage-earners in 1905 engaged in slaughtering and meat packing was 74,134, as contrasted with only 8,366 in 1870. As regards the distribution of the industry in 1905, slightly more than one-third of the total capital invested and of the total number of employees is shown for Illinois, Kansas taking second rank and Missouri third, according to the capital invested and the wage-earners employed.

LOCALITIES STUDIED.

In collecting data relative to the employees of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry and the members of their households information was gathered for employees throughout the United States. In the more intensive work covering racial displacements within the industry, working and living conditions, and the investigation of households the study was limited to representative communities such as Chicago, Kansas City, South Omaha, and East St. Louis. In preparing the data collected for publication practically the same plan has been followed, the first part of the following report being a general survey of conditions in the industry as a whole, and the succeeding sections a more detailed study of slaughtering and meat-packing communities of Chicago, Kansas City, and South Omaha.

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table shows the total number of households studied according to race of head of household:

TABLE 2.-Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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Very nearly 90 per cent of the total number of households studied in this industry are households in which the heads were foreign-born, 9 per cent are those in which the heads were native-born of native father, and 1.4 per cent are those in which the heads were nativeborn of foreign father.

Among the foreign-born the Bohemian and Moravian households studied constitute a larger proportion of the total number of house

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