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Table 185.—Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the

United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Of a total of 159 males reporting complete data, the above table shows that 95, or 59.7 per cent, are fully naturalized and that 23, or 14.5 per cent, have first papers only-leaving 25.8 per cent who evince no interest in citizenship.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The ability to speak English of foreign-born employees or members of their households, who were of non-English-speaking races, is considered in the series of tables next presented. The first table, which immediately follows, shows by race the per cent of foreign-born persons in the households studied 6 years of age or over who speak English. TABLE 186.--Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and

general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only non-English speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, how

ever, are for all non-English-speaking races.)

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Native-born of foreign father, by race of
father:
Bohemian and Moravian..
German.
Polish.

Swedish
Foreign-born:

Bohemian and Moravian.
German.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Polish
Slovak.
Swedish.

Grand total..
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total foreign-born....

36 30 24 31 28 28

107
29
31
24
34
29
28

82.5 100.0 76.7 54.2 90.3 78.6 100.0

53.3 86.2 67.7 20.8 47.1 27.6 100.0

68.7 93.8 72.1 37.5 67.7 52.6 100.0

57 56

560

510

1,070

90.5

73.5

82. 4

237 323

99.1

203
307

440
630

99. 2
84.2

99.0
56.7

70.8

Of the native-born of foreign father 99.1 per cent speak English. Of the foreign-born 70.8 per cent speak English, the proportion of males being 84.2 per cent, of females 56.7 per cent.

The proportion of English-speaking persons is smallest for the South Italians. The proportions of Slovaks, Poles, and Bohemians and Moravians who speak English are smaller than that of the total foreign-born group. The Poles, however, have a relatively larger proportion of males speaking English.

All the Swedes speak English and a relatively large proportion of the Germans. The per cent of Germans who do not speak English are females.

In general, the more commonly English is spoken by a race the less difference there is between the proportions of males and females who speak it.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and the per cent of employees who speak English.

TABLE 187.Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however,

is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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The proportion of foreign-born male employees in this locality, for whom information was secured, who speak English is 51.7 per cent. The Swedes and Germans have by far the larger and the South Italians, Poles, Russians, and Slovenians have the smaller proportions of individuals who speak English.

The following table shows the per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over, in the households studied, who speak English, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual: TABLE 188.—Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total,

however, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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Of those persons in the households studied who were under 14 years of age when they came to the United States the proportion who speak English is 90.2 per cent; of those who were 14 years of age or over the proportion is 65.6 per cent. In every instance in the households studied among the specified races, except the Swedes, the proportion speaking English is greater among those who were less than 14 years of age at the time of their arrival in this country. The South Italians have the smallest proportions speaking English both among those who were under 14 years of age and those 14 years or over at the time of their coming to the United States.

The following table shows the per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over, in the households studied, who speak English, according to years in the United States and race of individual: TABLE 189.Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English,

by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This tables includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total,

however, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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Total

630

40.0

63.8

84.1

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The foregoing table presents complete data for 630 people. Of the number who have been in the United States less than five years, 40 per cent speak English, while 63.8 per cent and 84.1 per cent of those who have been here from five to nine and ten years or over, respectively, speak English. In comparing the different races which have been in the United States less than five years, the North Italians present the highest proportion speaking English; the Bohemians and Moravians come second, followed by the Poles, South Italians, and Slovaks, in the order named. The proportion of the Germans and Swedes are not calculated owing to the small number involved. Relative to these same races which have been in the United States from five to nine years, the Germans lead all races followed by the Poles and North Italians. The progress of the Slovaks, South Italians, and Bohemians and Moravians being comparatively more gradual.

In comparing the differences of these same races after having been in the United States ten years or over, the Swedes take first place, followed by the Germans, Poles, South Italians, North Italians, and Bohemians and Moravians, while the Slovaks show the lowest percentage.

The table which follows exhibits for the employees the greater progress of the younger immigrants as compared with the older in learning to speak the English language.

TABLE 190.- Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by age at time

of coming to the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however,

is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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The above table shows that a much larger proportion of the foreign-born individuals who came to the United States when under 14 than of those who came here when 14 or over are able to speak English. Of the individuals who came here when under 14 all of the Germans and Swedes and a larger proportion of the Poles and Bohemians and Moravians than of the Lithuanians, Russians, or Slovaks are able to speak English, while the proportion of individuals who came when 14 or over who speak English is largest for the Swedes and smallest for the Poles.

The progress in acquiring the English language of foreign-born employees after specified periods of residence in the United States is shown in the table immediately following.

Table 191.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by years in the

United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.)

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Of the 10,363 males included in the preceding table, 51.7 per cent speak English. That ability to speak English increases with period of residence in the United States is apparent from the fact that while the proportion of those of each race who have been in the United States under five years ranges from 61.5 per cent of the Swedes to 21.4 per cent of the Bohemian and Moravians, the proportion of those who have had a period of residence of from five to nine years ranges from 95.8 per cent of the Swedes to 44.2 per cent of the Bohemian and Moravian, and the proportion of those with a period of residence of ten years or over ranges from 99.2 per cent of the Swedes to 75.1 per cent of the Lithuanians.

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