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Table 180.- Per cent of persons within each age group, by sex and general nativity and

race of head of household—(ontinued.

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It appears from the above table that of the males for whom information was secured, 19.6 per cent are under 6 years of age, 19.3 per

, cent from 6 to 13, 5.2 per cent from 14 to 15, 8.3 per cent from 15 to 19, 14.1 per cent from 20 to 29, 21.1 per cent from 30 to 44, and 12.3 per cent 45 or over. The proportion of individuals at the ages of greatest efficiency-from 20 to 29 and from 30 to 44—is larger for the native-born of foreign father than for the foreign-born. Of the foreign-born the Irish have the largest and the Germans the smallest proportion of individuals from 20 to 29 years of age, and the North Italians have the largest and the Irish the smallest proportion of individuals from 30 to 44 years of age,

Among the females the proportion of individuals from 20 to 29 years of age is considerably larger and the proportion of individuals 45 years of age or over is smaller than among the males. With these exceptions, the proportion of females included in each age group does not differ widely from the proportion of males. The proportion of females from 20 to 29 years of age is larger for the native-born of foreign father than for the foreign-born, while the proportion of females from 30 to 44 and 45 years of age or over, respectively, is much larger for the foreign-born than for the native-born of foreign father. Of the foreign-born the Poles have the largest and the Germans the smallest proportion of females from 20 to 29 years of age. The proportion of females from 30 to 44 years of age is much larger for the North Italians than for the individuals of any other race and is smallest for the Irish. The proportion of females 45 years of age or over is much larger for the Irish than for the individuals of any other race and is smallest for the Slovaks.

The age composition of the operating forces of the Chicago slaughtering and meat-packing establishments

is shown according to general nativity and race in the table below. The table furnishes an insight into the ages of foreign-born employees and makes possible a comparison on the basis of age with the native-born in the same work.

Table 181.Per cent of male employees within each age group, by general nativity and

race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Of the male employees for whom information was secured, none are under 14 years of age, 7 per cent are from 14 to 19, 18.9 per cent are from 20 to 24, 19 per cent are from 25 to 29, 13.8 per cent are from 30 to 34, 21 per cent are from 35 to 44, 14 per cent are from 45 to 54, and 6.4 per cent are 55 or over. The proportion of employees from 20 to 24 years of age is largest for the native-born of foreign father, second largest for the native-born of native father, white, and smallest for the native-born of native father, negro; the proportion of employees from 25 to 29 years of age is largest for the foreign-born, second largest for the native-born of native father, negro, and smallest for the native-born of native father, white; the proportion of employees from 30 to 34 years of age is largest for the native-born of native father, negro, second largest for the foreign-born and smallest for the native-born of foreign father; and the proportion of employees from 35 to 44 years of age is largest for the native-born of native father, negro, second largest for the foreign-born and smallest for the nativeborn of native father, white. Of the foreign-born, the Slovenians have the largest and the Swedes the smallest percentage of individuals from 20 to 24; and the Croatians have the largest and the Canadians other than French the smallest proportion of individuals from 25 to 29. The proportion of individuals from 30 to 34 is largest for the Magyars and smallest for the Irish; and the proportion of individuals from 35 to 44 is largest for the Canadians other than French and smallest for the Magyars.

CHAPTER VII.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Ownership of homes-Citizenship-Ability to speak English-[Text Tables 182 to

191 and General Tables 101 to 109].

OWNERSHIP OF HOMES.

Where the opportunity for home ownership exists the activities on the part of the foreign-born families in acquiring their homes furnishes an excellent indication of the tendencies making for permanent settlement and assimilation.

The number and per cent of families the heads of which were engaged in slaughtering and meat-packing industry in Chicago, and who owned homes is shown in the following table, according to general nativity and race of head of family:

Table 182.-Number and per cent of families ouning home, by general nativity and

race of head of family.

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The above table shows that 30.2 per cent of the 361 families for whom information was obtained in this locality own homes, the proportion of foreign-born families being very much larger than that of the native-born.

Among the foreign-born, the Irish, with 54.5 per cent of their families owning homes, report a considerably larger proportion than the Bohemians and Moravians, Swedes, and Germans, and a very much larger proportion than the North Italians, Poles, Slovaks, and English, in the order named, the English reporting the smallest proportion of families owning homes, or 16 per cent.

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The extent to which employees of foreign birth are acquiring or manifesting an interest in citizenship is set forth in the following table, which shows, by race, the present political condition of the foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States five years or over, and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming:

Table 183.

Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
(By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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Armenian..
Bohemian and Moravian.
Bulgarian..
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other
Croatian..
Danish..
Dutch.
English.
Finnish
French.
German
Greek.
Hebrew, Russian.
Hebrew, Other
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South
Lithuanian.
Magyar..
Norwegian.
Polish
Roumanian.
Russian
Ruthenian.
Scotch.
Scotch-Irish
Servian...
Slovak
Slovenian.
Spanish
Swedish.
Turkish.
Welsh
Austrian (race not specified).
Belgian (race not specified)
Swiss (race not specified).

Total...

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Of the individuals in this locality for whom information was secured, 47.1 per cent are fully naturalized and 9.8 per cent have first papers only. The proportion of individuals fully naturalized is largest for the Irish, followed by the Swedes and Germans, and the proportion of individuals who have first papers only is largest for the Bohemians and Moravians, followed by the Slovaks, Russians, English, Swedes, and Poles in the order mentioned.

The tendency toward citizenship. after designated periods of residence in this country is considered in the following table: Table 184.— Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21

years of age or over at time of coming to the United States, by years in United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.

only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

This table includes

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The Irish, Germans, Bohemians, and Moravians show a much greater proportion fully naturalized than the Lithuanians, Polish, and Slovaks.

Of those in the United States five to nine years the Irish show the largest proportion fully naturalized and the Polish the smallest proportion, while the Lithuanians exceed the Germans, Bohemians, and Moravians. In this period the Germans, Bohemians, and Moravians show a much greater proportion having first papers than the other races. Of those in the United States ten years or over the Lithuanians and Slovaks show the largest proportion having first papers.

The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the present political condition of foreign-born males in the households studied, who have been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming.

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