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TABLE 160.- Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room, by

general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all

races.)

Per cent paying

General nativity and race of head of

household.

Number of house

holds paying rent and reporting amount.

Average
rent per
room.

Under $1. Under $2. Under $3. Under $4.

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Foreign-born:
Bohemian and Moravian.

62 $1.81

0.0

58. 1 Polish

23 2. 36

.0 26.1 Slovak

22 2. 39

.0

9.1 Grand total...

245
2. 26

.0 26.9 Total native-born of foreign father

13
1.85

(a) Total native-born

21
2. 11

28. 6 Total foreign-born

224 2. 27

.0 26.8 a Not computed, owing to sinall number involved.

(a)

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In the above table 26.9 per cent of the total households pay

under $2 per month per room, 82.9 per cent under $3, and 98.4 per cent under $4, showing the greater proportion pay between $2 and $3 per month. 'It will be seen

that foreign-born pay a slightly higher average rental than native-born, the per cent of the latter paying under $2 per

$ month being greater than the former, and also a larger proportion of foreign-born pay over $4 per month per room. Bohemians and Moravians pay the lowest monthly rental, none of the households paying over $3 per month, and the greatest proportion under $2. Polish show a larger proportion paying under $2 per month than Slovaks, the majority of households of the last-named race paying between $2 and $3 per month per room. Poles and Slovaks show practically the same per cent paying over $4 per month.

The final table in the series shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person. Table 161.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person, by

general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Grand total
Total native-born of foreign father
Total native-born
Total foreign-born

1. 99 2. 40 2.09

(a)

13 21 224

.0 3.1

(a)

38. 1
38.8

(a)

71.4
68.8

(a)

85.7 87.9

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

This table gives the figures concerning the amount of rent paid per person, by 245 households connected with the meat-packing industry in Chicago. The totals show that 87.8 per cent of all the households considered

pay under $4 a month per person for rent; 69.0 per cent pay under $3, 38.8 per cent pay under $2, and 2.9 per cent pay under $1. The proportions for the foreign-born correspond very closely to those for all.“ Of those races for whom percentages have been computed only the Bohemian and Moravian have households paying over $4 a month per person. The Slovoks have the highest proportion paying under $1, 9.1 per cent, while the Poles in this locality have no households paying under $1.

BOARDERS AND LODGERS.

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The tendency on the part of wives to keep boarders or lodgers in order to augment the family income has already been discussed. The extent to which this practice prevails is exhibited by the following table, which shows by general nativity and race of head of household the number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers. Table 162.— Number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general

nativity and race of head of household.

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Of a total of 359 households studied in the above table, 32, or 8.9 per cent, keep boarders or lodgers. Of the 334 households, the heads of which are foreign-born, 31, or 9.3 per cent, keep boarders or lodgers.

Considering the several foreign races, it will be seen that the households the heads of which are Slovaks, followed by the house

a See pp. 222-224.

holds the heads of which are North Italians, and the households the heads of which are Poles, show the largest proportion, or 25.9 per cent, keeping boarders or lodgers, while, with the exception of the households the heads of which are English and the households the heads of which are Irish (each of which show none) the households the heads of which are Swedish show the smallest proportion, or 3.6 per cent, keeping boarders or lodgers.

The following table shows by general nativity and race of head of household the average number of boarders or lodgers per household. The averages are based (1) on the total number of households studied and (2) on the number keeping boarders or lodgers.

Table 163.- Average number of boarders or lodgers per household, by general nativity and

race of head of household.

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In the 359 households only 54 boarders or lodgers were reported, making an average of 0.15 per household. Based on the number of households keeping, boarders or lodgers, the average number of boarders or lodgers is 1.69. In the households of the native-born of foreign father there is no instance in which boarders or lodgers are kept. Of the 10 households of the native-born of native father only one boarder or lodger is reported. The 334 foreign-born households average 0.16 boarders or lodgers. The 31 foreign-born households keeping boarders or lodgers average 1.71 boarders or lodgers. Among the specified races the average number of boarders or lodgers ranges from 0.48 per Slovak household to none at all in either the English or Irish households.

SIZE OF APARTMENTS OCCUPIED.

The range in the size of apartments occupied by the households of the slaughtering and meat-packing employees is presented in the following table, which shows by general nativity and race of head of household the per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms:

Table 164.- Per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of

rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for

all races.)

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Of the 359 households studied in the preceding table, 47.1 per cent occupy apartments of 4 rooms, 12.3 per cent and 7.2 per cent occupy apartments of 3 and 2 rooms, respectively, and 16.4 per cent and 14.2 per cent occupy apartments of 5 and 6 rooms, respectively. No households occupy apartments of 1 room, and only 2.8 per cent occupy apartments of 7 rooms or more. No households the heads of which are native-born occupy apartments of less than 3 rooms, as compared with 7.8 per cent of the households the heads of which are foreign-born.

Of the households the heads of which are Germans, Irish, and Swedish none occupy apartments of less than 3 rooms, while the households the heads of which are Slovaks show a larger proportion occupying apartments of 2 than any other specified number of rooms. Of the households occupying apartments of 4 rooms those of which the heads are Bohemian and Moravian show the largest and those of which the heads are English the smallest proportion. Of the households occupying apartments of 6 rooms those of which the heads are English show the largest and none of those the heads of which are Poles or Slovaks are reported as occupying an apartment as large as this. Less than 10 per cent of each race occupy apartments of 7

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rooms or more.

SIZE OF HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The size of households is indicated by the table next presented. It shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the per cent of households of each specified number of persons. TABLE 165.-- Per cent of households of each specified number of persons, by general nativity

and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for

all races.)

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In this locality, 12.5 per cent of the households studied are of 2 individuals; 21.7 per cent of 3 individuals; 20.6 per cent of 4 individuals; 16.4 per cent of 5 individuals; 10 per cent of 6 individuals; 9.5 per cent of 7 individuals; and only a very small proportion of 8 individuals, 9 individuals, and 10 or more individuals, respectively. Among the foreign-born, the English have the largest proportion of households of 2 individuals; the Irish have the largest proportion of households of 3 individuals; the Bohemians and Moravians have the largest proportion of households of 4 individuals; and the Slovaks have the largest proportion of households of 5 individuals. The proportion of households of 10 or more individuals is largest for the English.

CONGESTION.

The crowded conditions within the households and the effect of congestion upon living arrangements are set forth in the series of tables next submitted. The first of these tables shows the average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room, according to general nativity and race of head of househodi.

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