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slightly more per apartment than the foreign-born. They also pay considerably more rent per individual and not quite so much per room. Of the foreign-born the Swedes pay the highest rent per apartment, closely followed by the English, and the Slovaks pay the lowest rate. The Russians pay the highest rate per room, $2.68, and the Bohemians and Moravians the lowest, $1.81. All the foreign-born, except the Bohemians and Moravians and South Italians, pay more than $2.25 and less than $2.75 per room. The price paid per person varies from $2.99, the highest, to $1.36, the lowest. The different races follow the Russians, who pay the highest, in the order named: Swedes, English, South Italians, North Italians, Germans, Irish, Poles, Bohemians and Moravians, and Slovaks.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment:

TABLE 159.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the total number of households 62 per cent pay less than $10 per month per apartment; 34.7 per cent pay less than $7.50. These figures indicate the rent commonly paid by foreign-born households. Low rent per apartment is most general among the Slovaks, of whom 86.4 per cent pay under $10, and none pay as high as $12.50. The table next presented shows by general nativity and race of head of household the per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room.

TABLE 160.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all

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In the above table 26.9 per cent of the total households pay under $2 per month per room, 82.9 per cent under $3, and 98.4 per cent under $4, showing the greater proportion pay between $2 and $3 per month. It will be seen that foreign-born pay a slightly higher average rental than native-born, the per cent of the latter paying under $2 per month being greater than the former, and also a larger proportion of foreign-born pay over $4 per month per room. Bohemians and Moravians pay the lowest monthly rental, none of the households paying over $3 per month, and the greatest proportion under $2. Polish show a larger proportion paying under $2 per month than Slovaks, the majority of households of the last-named race paying between $2 and $3 per month per room. Poles and Slovaks show practically the same per cent paying over $4 per month.

The final table in the series shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person.

TABLE 161.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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This table gives the figures concerning the amount of rent paid per person, by 245 households connected with the meat-packing industry in Chicago. The totals show that 87.8 per cent of all the households considered pay under $4 a month per person for rent; 69.0 per cent pay under $3, 38.8 per cent pay under $2, and 2.9 per cent pay under $1. The proportions for the foreign-born correspond very closely to those for all. Of those races for whom percentages have been computed only the Bohemian and Moravian have households paying over $4 a month per person. The Slovoks have the highest proportion paying under $1, 9.1 per cent, while the Poles in this locality have no households paying under $1.

BOARDERS AND LODGERS.

The tendency on the part of wives to keep boarders or lodgers in order to augment the family income has already been discussed." The extent to which this practice prevails is exhibited by the following table, which shows by general nativity and race of head of household the number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 162.-Number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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Of a total of 359 households studied in the above table, 32, or 8.9 per cent, keep boarders or lodgers. Of the 334 households, the heads of which are foreign-born, 31, or 9.3 per cent, keep boarders or lodgers.

Considering the several foreign races, it will be seen that the households the heads of which are Slovaks, followed by the house

a See pp. 222-224.

holds the heads of which are North Italians, and the households the heads of which are Poles, show the largest proportion, or 25.9 per cent, keeping boarders or lodgers, while, with the exception of the households the heads of which are English and the households the heads of which are Irish (each of which show none) the households the heads of which are Swedish show the smallest proportion, or 3.6 per cent, keeping boarders or lodgers.

The following table shows by general nativity and race of head of household the average number of boarders or lodgers per household. The averages are based (1) on the total number of households studied and (2) on the number keeping boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 163.-Average number of boarders or lodgers per household, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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In the 359 households only 54 boarders or lodgers were reported, making an average of 0.15 per household. Based on the number of households keeping boarders or lodgers, the average number of boarders or lodgers is 1.69. In the households of the native-born of foreign father there is no instance in which boarders or lodgers are kept. Of the 10 households of the native-born of native father only one boarder or lodger is reported. The 334 foreign-born households average 0.16 boarders or lodgers. The 31 foreign-born households keeping boarders or lodgers average 1.71 boarders or lodgers. Among the specified races the average number of boarders or lodgers ranges from 0.48 per Slovak household to none at all in either the English or Irish households.

SIZE OF APARTMENTS OCCUPIED.

The range in the size of apartments occupied by the households of the slaughtering and meat-packing employees is presented in the following table, which shows by general nativity and race of head of household the per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms:

TABLE 164.-Per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for

all races.]

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Of the 359 households studied in the preceding table, 47.1 per cent occupy apartments of 4 rooms, 12.3 per cent and 7.2 per cent occupy apartments of 3 and 2 rooms, respectively, and 16.4 per cent and 14.2 per cent occupy apartments of 5 and 6 rooms, respectively. No households occupy apartments of 1 room, and only 2.8 per cent occupy apartments of 7 rooms or more. No households the heads of which are native-born occupy apartments of less than 3 rooms, as compared with 7.8 per cent of the households the heads of which are foreign-born.

Of the households the heads of which are Germans, Irish, and Swedish none occupy apartments of less than 3 rooms, while the households the heads of which are Slovaks show a larger proportion occupying apartments of 2 than any other specified number of rooms. Of the households occupying apartments of 4 rooms those of which the heads are Bohemian and Moravian show the largest and those of which the heads are English the smallest proportion. Of the households occupying apartments of 6 rooms those of which the heads are English show the largest and none of those the heads of which are Poles or Slovaks are reported as occupying an apartment as large as this. Less than 10 per cent of each race occupy apartments of 7

rooms or more.

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