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comparison of native-born of foreign father with foreign-born shows the

per cent of the former working twelve months or nine months or over to be higher than that of the latter. Foreign-born shows a slightly larger proportion who worked six months or over and nativeborn of foreign father only a slightly higher per cent who worked three months or over. Of the native-born of foreign father, Bohemians and Moravians had a larger proportion with steady work for the whole year than Poles, each race showing 100 per cent who worked three months or over.

Of the foreign-born races, Swedish and North Italian show a much higher per cent working the full 12 months than the other races, German, English, Irish, Slovak, Polish, and Bohemian and Moravian following in the order mentioned, the last three races mentioned showing under 50 per cent who worked the full year. North Italians show 100 per cent who worked nine months or over; Swedes, English, Poles, Germans, Irish, Bohemians and Moravians, and Slovaks follow as named. Swedes, English, Poles, and North Italians show all individuals working six months or over; Germans, Bohemians and Moravians, Irish, and Slovaks follow as mentioned, the last-named race showing a comparatively low per cent. All races shown in the table except Germans show 100 per cent working three months or over.

THE IMMIGRANT AND ORGANIZED LABOR.

The following table shows by general nativity and race of individual the extent of affiliation with trade unions of males in the households studied in Chicago who were 21 years of age or over working for wages:

Table 157.- Affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over who are working

for wages, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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42 52 340

2 5 21

4.8 9.6 6.2

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The table shows that of 392 males working for wages, 6.6 per cent are affiliated with trade unions, the total native-born reporting a higher per cent than the foreign-born, while the native-born of foreign father report a smaller proportion.

of the foreign-born races reporting certain proportions affiliated with trade unions the large proportion of North Italians, as compared with the proportions of the other races, stands out most prominently. Following the North Italians, with a proportion considerably larger than the Irish and very much greater than either the Germans or the Bohemians and Moravians, are the English. None of the Poles, Slovaks, or Swedes are affiliated with trade unions.

LABOR CONTROVERSIES.

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There have been four strikes of importance among the Chicago operatives during the past twenty-five years. The first strike of 1886 was called on May 3 and was of short duration, lasting only about one hour and a half. This strike was started by the Bohemians, and centered on a demand for shorter working hours. On the morning of

. May 3, 1886, when the butchers were ready for their daily task, the Bohemians, who at that time were employed as common laborers, separated themselves from the rest of the force and refused to work. Upon inquiry as to the reason for this refusal, it was ascertained that the Bohemians wanted an eight-hour day. This situation was explained to the officials, who refused to comply with the demand with the result that the employees went out on strike. At the expiration of the time above mentioned, however, they had gained their point of an eight-hour day for all employees and returned to work. The second strike, occurring in November of the same year, was the result of a demand on the part of the several companies that the men return to the ten-hour day. This the men refused to do. After being out two weeks, and with the situation well in hand, the men were ordered to return to work by a labor official of high rank and authority. It is contended that but for the order to return to work from this official, who was not familiar with the situation, the strike could have been won by the men. In addition to a return to the ten-hour day, another outgrowth of this strike was the change made by the • companies in paying their employees from a day and week basis to an hour rate.

The third strike to occur in this industry was generally known as a “sympathetic strike,' and this occurred in 1894 at the time of the Chicago railroad strike. It is admitted by those who at that time were employed in the industry, and who supposedly struck in sympathy with the railroad men, that the employees of the packing houses considered it a good time to even up old scores and to renew their demands, which feeling had as much to do with the strike as anything else. This strike is said to have lasted about nine weeks. It would, perhaps, be more correct to say that there were, in reality, two strikes in 1904, but as such a short time intervened and as the two were so closely related there was practically only one strike. This was the result of the labor organizations attempting to secure a uniform wage of 20 cents per hour for unskilled labor throughout the country. At the time this strike was called, on July 12, 1904, unskilled laborers in

the packing houses were receiving 15 cents an hour. When the demand for an increase was met with a refusal, all employees, with the exception of the engineers, firemen, and teamsters, were ordered out. After ten days, the unions having reduced their demand as to wages to 18} cents an hour as the minimum for unskilled labor, the packers agreed to submit all differences to arbitration, and further to reinstate, within forty-five days, all the old employees who had been out on the strike. This agreement was made one Wednesday night. On Friday morning the men returned to work at 7 a. m., only to walk out again at 10 a. m. of the same morning, the men in the more skilled positions claiming they had been discriminated against. All employees were ordered out at this time, and the strike lasted until September 6, when those who could get back did so, but on the companies' terms. This, with the exception of a small controversy that one plant recently had with the steam fitters, was the last strike in the industry. It was also the end of recognition, with the exception of the teamsters union, of organized labor in the large plants of the industry. Since the year 1904, with the exception stated above, the men have been treated with only as individuals. The large companies regularly recognize and sign agreements with the teamsters' organization.

CHAPTER V.

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

Rent in its relation to standard of living-Boarders and lodgers-Size of apartments

occupied-Size of households studied-Congestion–Text Tables 158 to 169 and General Tables 79 to 90).

RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING.

The rent payments of the households of the Chicago slaughtering and meat-packing employees are chiefly significant in the insight which they afford as to congestion and living conditions, the practice being generally followed of crowding a large number of persons in apartments in order to reduce the per capita rent payment. The bearing of monthly rent payments in this connection, as well as upon the general standard of living, is set forth in the following series of tables, the first of which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average monthly rent payment, per apartment, per room, and per person.

Table 158.-Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 10 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all

races.]

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The average rent paid per apartment by 245 households is $9.11; per room, $2.26; and per individual, $2.11. The native-born, including native-born of foreign father and native-born of native father, pay 48296°-VOL 13–11-16

233

slightly more per apartment than the foreign-born. They also pay considerably more rent per individual and not quite so much per room. Of the foreign-born the Swedes pay the highest rent per apartment, closely followed by the English, and the Slovaks pay the lowest rate. The Russians pay the highest rate per room, $2.68, and the Bohemians and Moravians the lowest, $1.81. All the foreign-born, except the Bohemians and Moravians and South Italians, pay more than $2.25 and less than $2.75 per room. The price paid per person varies from $2.99, the highest, to $1.36, the lowest. The different races follow the Russians, who pay the highest, in the order named: Swedes, English, South Italians, North Italians, Germans, Irish, Poles, Bohemians and Moravians, and Slovaks.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment: TABLE 159.—Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Of the total number of households 62 per cent pay less than $10 per month per apartment; 34.7 per cent pay less than $7.50. These

.

. figures indicate the rent commonly paid by foreign-born households.

Low rent per apartment is most general among the Slovaks, of whom 86.4 per cent pay under $10, and none pay as high as $12.50.

The table next presented shows by general nativity and race of head of household the per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room.

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