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The most important information in connection with the totals for the above table is that approximately 100 percent of the families reporting have an income from earnings of the husband, as compared with but 2.1 per cent who have income from earnings of wife. None of the native-born families have income from wife's earnings and only a small proportion have income from children's contributions or from boarders or lodgers. A very small proportion of foreign-born families have income from earnings of wife, and a slightly increased proportion have income from boarders or lodgers. The proportion of families among the foreign-born having income from children's contributions is much larger than in the case of the native-born.

The Irish and Polish are the only races reporting less than 100 per cent of the families studied who have income from husband's earnings, The North Italians, Poles, Slovaks, and Swedes show no families which have income from wife's earnings, and the races that do show families having income from that source report in each case less than 5 per cent of their total number. The proportion of families having contributions from children is larger for the Irish than for any other race studied. The Bohemians and Moravians, English, Germans, and Swedes each report almost the same proportion of families having income from children's contributions. The families having income from the payments of boarders or lodgers appear in largest proportions among the Slovak, North Italian, and Polish races in the order named, the largest proportion being 23.1 per cent of the Slovaks. Compared with this proportion, only 6.6 per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians derive income from this specified source, and none of the English, Irish, or Swedes report any such income. Upon the information reported, the Bohemians and Moravians show the largest proportion of families deriving income from sources other than those specified, and are followed in the order named, by the German, Irish, Slovak, Swedish, Polish, English, and North Italian races.

The proportion of families having incomes from each specified source is shown in detail in the table next presented, by general nativity and race of head of family.

TABLE 154.--Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of hecd of

family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all rares.]

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From the information secured regarding the total number of families included in the foregoing table, the most important feature is that the largest proportion of the families studied derive their entire income from husband, and the smallest proportion from children. Only 0.3 per cent of all the families report income from the latter source, while the proportion deriving entire income from husband is 54.3 per cent. A greater proportion of native-born than of foreign

. born families derive their entire income from husband, while the proportions of foreign-born families having income from such sources as husband and wife, husband and children, husband and boarders or lodgers is greater than the proportion of the native-born.

The proportion of families who derive their entire income from husband is larger among the North Italians than any other race, and smallest among the Irish. The Poles show a proportion almost as large as the North Italians, and are followed, in the order named, by the Slovaks, Swedes, English, Germans, and Bohemians and Moravians. The English and German are the only races showing any families who derive their entire income from husband and wife combined. Every race studied shows a proportion of families who have income from husband and children combined, the English showing the largest proportion and the Slovaks the smallest. The only races having entire income from husband, wife, and children combined are the Bohemians and Moravians, and Irish. A larger proportion of Slovak families than of any other race have entire income from husband and boarders or lodgers. The smallest proportion of any race, except the English, Irish, and Swedish, who report zero, who derive income from this source, is the Bohemian and Moravian.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the per cent of total annual family income from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources:

TABLE 155.- Per cent of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children,

boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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From information secured in this locality, as presented in the above table, it appears that the earnings of husband and the contributions of children are the principal sources of income shown by the total number of families. *A much larger proportion of the total income is derived from the earnings of husband than from the contributions of children, while the proportion derived from the earnings of wife, payments of boarders or lodgers, and other sources is extremely small

. The proportion of the total yearly income derived from the earnings of husband is much larger, and that derived from the contributions of children much smaller, among the native-born than among the foreign-born families.

The North Italians, closely followed by the Slovaks, derive the largest per cent of total yearly income from earnings of husband. In the order in which they derive the largest per cent of total yearly income from earnings of husband, the English, Poles, Germans, Bohemians and Moravians, and Swedes follow the Slovak, while the Irish, who obtain 51 per cent of their total yearly income from this source, report the smallest proportion. The Irish derive from the contributions of children a considerably larger proportion of their total yearly family income than any other race; the North Italians report the smallest proportion from this source. The North Italians, Poles, Slovaks and Swedes receive no part of their total annual family

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income, and the Bohemians and Moravians, English, Germans, and Irish, each less than 1 per cent from the earnings of wives.

From the payments of boarders or lodgers, the North Italians derive a larger per cent of their total income than any other race, while no part of the income of the English, Irish, or Swedes is derived from this source.

Each race, it will be noted, receives a small per cent of the annual family income from sources not specified in the foregoing table, the Slovaks, closely followed by the Poles and Bohemians and Moravians, reporting the largest proportion, while the smallest proportion, or 0.8 per cent, is reported by the North Italians.

CHAPTER IV.

WORKING CONDITIONS.

Hours of work— Regularity of employment—The immigrant and organized labor

Labor controversies—[Text Tables 156 and 157 and General Table 78).

HOURS OF WORK.

The regular hours of work in the Chicago slaughtering and meatpacking establishments are ten per day and sixty per week, subject, however, to variation according to conditions.

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT.

The regularity of employment fluctuates according to seasonal demands for meat and canned products and other conditions already discussed. In this connection the following table shows by general nativity and race of individual months worked during the past year by males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over. TABLE 156.— Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed

away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Of the total number reporting in the above table, 58.8 per cent worked twelve months, 80.3 per cent nine months or over, 96.6 per cent six months or over, and 99.8 per cent three months or over. A a See Part 1, Chap. IV, p. 85, on regularity of employment.

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