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2.2 per cent, of the total number reporting complete data earn less than $200 per year, while a considerably larger per cent, 6.7, earn $1,000 or over. Slightly more than half, 56.1 per cent, earn less than $600.

Comparing the native-born of foreign father with the foreignborn, it is seen that a slightly larger proportion of the former earn under $200 per year than of the latter, while a larger per cent of the foreign-born than of the native-born of foreign father, receive $1,000 or over per year. A larger proportion of the foreign-born than of the native-born of foreign father have average. yearly earnings of less than $600. Comparing the different foreign-born races, it is seen that the Irish show the highest per cent receiving less than $200 per year, followed by the Slovak, Polish, German, Bohemian and Moravian, English, North Italian, and Swedish, in the order named, the three last-named races showing none earning less than this amount. A much larger proportion of the English-32 per cent-earn $1,000 or more per year, while none of the Slovaks and Poles reporting earn this much.

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

An examination is next made of the amount and sources of annual income of the families studied. In this connection the following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount:

Table 148.--Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by

general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Total native-born of foreign

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

father.. Total native-born. Total foreign-born,

13 23 316

4.3 3.8

17.4 25.9

52.2
57.0

91.3
75.3

95.7
91.1

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The preceding table shows a total of 339 families, the largest propor

a tion, or 56.6 per cent, of which have a total yearly income of under $750, The proportion shown as having a total yearly income under $300 is smaller than that shown as having a total yearly income of $1,500 or over. The proportionate increase between those having a total yearly income of from $500 to $750 is greater than that shown bet ween those having a total yearly income of from $750 to $1,000.

The native-born show a larger proportion having a total yearly income under $300 than do the foreign-born, which is more than offset by the fact that they also show larger proportions as having a total yearly income from $750 to $1,500, the foreign-born showing larger proportions as regards a total yearly income from $300 to $750.

Comparing the foreign-born races, it will be seen that the English, North Italian, Polish, and Swedish races each show a total yearly income of $300 or over, while the Slovak shows the largest proportion having a total yearly income under $300. It will be seen that the Slovaks also show none with a total yearly income of $1,000 or over. With the exception of the English, German, and Swedish each race shows a larger increase between those having a total yearly income under $500 and under $750 than between those having a total yearly income under $750 and under $1,000.

WIVES AT WORK.

In connection with the study of the sources of family income the following table is presented showing, by general nativity and race of head of family, the number and per cent of wives in the households studied who were employed outside the home as wage-earners:

TABLE 149.---Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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Of the 337 wives found in the 339 families studied in the above table, it will be seen that only 7, or 2.1 per cent, are at work, the entire number being foreign-born. The Bohemians and Moravians, English, Germans, Irish, and Magyars each show a small number working The earnings were of no consequence.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FEMALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the average yearly earnings of all females in the households studied who were 18 years of age or over working for wages: Table 150.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general

nativity and race of individual.

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The above table shows that of 46 females 18 years of age or over reporting complete data the average yearly earnings are $360. A very much larger average yearly earning is shown by the native-born of foreign father than by the foreign-born. Of the native-born of foreign father only those whose fathers were Bohemians and Moravians report in sufficient numbers to be computed, and the average yearly earnings of the individuals of this race reporting is considerably higher than the average shown by the foreign-born, and lower than that shown by the combined average of all the native-born of foreign father reporting

RELATION BETWEEN THE EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE

OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

The tendency of wives according to the earnings of their husbands to contribute to the family income is set forth in the table next presented. It shows by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family the number and per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 151.-Number of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
[The families here represented are only those where both husband and wife are present.)

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a For selection of families, see p. 413.
This column includes 1 family in which husband's earnings are reported as "none."

TABLE 152.Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.

The families here represented are only those where both husband and wife are present.)

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a This column includes 1 family in which husband's earnings are reported as “none."
Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of the 336 families studied in the preceding table, it will be seen that the largest proportion of wives having employment or keeping boarders or lodgers is shown in families where the yearly earnings of husband are under $400, while the smallest proportion is shown in families where the earnings of husband are $600 or over. As regards the native-born in comparison with the foreign-born, it will be seen that the only computation made for the former is smaller than the corresponding proportion as shown by the latter.

Of the foreign families in which the yearly earnings of the husband are under $400, the Irish and Slovaks show the largest, and the Bohemians and Moravians the smallest, proportion of wives having employment or keeping boarders or lodgers; while of those in which the yearly earnings of husband are from $400 to $600 the North Italians and Slovaks show considerably larger proportions than do the Bohemians and Moravians and Poles, the Germans and Irish showing none. The Slovaks, Germans, North Italians, and Bohemians and Moravians each show a proportion ranging from 20 per cent to 9.3 per cent, in the order named, of wives, in families where earnings of husband are $600 or over, who have employment or keep boarders or lodgers. Of the races which show a proportion of wives who have employment or keep boarders or lodgers in each specified amount shown as yearly earnings of husband, it will be seen that the Bohemians and Moravians and Slovaks show a certain proportion in each, while the Irish show a proportion in the under $400 only.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME. The general sources of family income are exhibited by the following table, which shows, according to general nativity and race of head of family, the per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources: TABLE 153.—Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife,

children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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