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Table 143.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each

specified amount per day, by race and length of residence in the United States. *

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more males reporting.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost tiine from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

In the preceding table the Bohemians and Moravians, Germans, and Irish show an earning capacity materially higher than that of the Lithuanians, Polish, Russians, and Slovaks. The Slovaks show a higher earning capacity than the Russians, Lithuanians, and Poles, The table also indicates an increased earning capacity as the length of residence in the United States increases and that the percentage of increase is greater among the non-English-speaking races than among the Irish. The percentage of increase is usually greater between the first and second periods than between the second and third.

The table next presented shows by race and length of residence in the United States the range in daily earnings of foreign-born male employees, 18 years of age or over.

TABLE 144.—Comparative earnings per day of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age

or over, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more males reporting.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

In the preceding table the Irish, Germans, and Bohemians and Moravians show an earning capacity materially higher than that of the Lithuanians, Poles, Russians, and Slovaks. In the first period the earning capacity of the Irish is slightly in excess of that of the Germans and Bohemians and Moravians, but the Bohemians and Moravians exhibit the highest proportion employed at the rate of $3 or over per day, in every period.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

The annual earnings of the male heads of families employed in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry are shown in the two tables next presented. The first table, which immediately follows, shows by general nativity and race the number and per cent of husbands at work, together with their average annual earnings.

Table 145.- Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.

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From the data presented in the above table, it will be seen that, in this locality, 99.7 per cent of all husbands, for whom information was secured, are at work, and that the yearly earnings of these husbands average $604. Larger average annual earnings are reported for the native-born than for the foreign-born husbands. Of all husbands, both native-born and foreign-born, the Poles alone report a proportion not employed.

The largest average yearly earnings is reported for the English, followed by the native whites, Swedes, and Germans, in the order named, and the smallest is reported for the Russians. The average annual earnings of the different races range from $865 for the English to $386 for the Russians, the husbands of the older immigrant races reporting, in general, considerably higher average yearly earnings than are reported by the more recent immigrant races. 48296 -VOL 13-11

-15

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the range in yearly earnings of male heads of families:

Table 146.-Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of

individual.

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Native-born of native father, White..
Native-born of foreign father, by

race of father, Polish.... Foreign-born:

Bohemian and Moravian.
English.
German.
Irish.
Italian, North.
italian, South.
Magvar.
Polish...
Russian.
Slovak
Swedish.

Grand total.

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586 865 677 590 614 496 436 417 386 451 767

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12 (a) (a)(a)(a) () (a) 22 22

.0.0 40.9,95.5 100.0 100.0 10 (a)(a) (a)(a) (C) (a) 26 3.8 7.7 38.5 80.8 100.0 100.0 22 .0 .0 .0 15.4 65.4 84.6

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6 157 282 312

.3 1.8 20.2 55.5 83,7 92.6

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438.31

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

As regards the foreign-born, it will be seen that in general the older immigrant races from Great Britain and northern Europe show the greatest earning capacity. Of the more recent immigrants, the North Italians and Bohemians and Moravians show earnings similar to the older immigrant races. Of the total number, the largest proportion, or 55.5 per cent, earns less than $600, 83.7 per cent less than $500, and 92.6 per cent less than $1,000. Of the 55.5 per cent earning under $600, much the largest proportion earns between $400 and $600 per year.

A comparison of the native-born with the foreign-born shows that the proportions of the latter earning each specified amount exceed those of the former, the difference being especially large as between those earning under $600 per year.

Only four races, of which the Irish report the largest and Bohemians and Moravians the smallest, show proportions earning less than $200 per year. Of those earning less than $400, there is little difference in the proportions of the Poles and Slovaks, each reporting a comparatively large proportion. Following these races, in the order named, are the Irish, Bohemians and Moravians, Germans, and North Italians, the last named reporting 4.5 per cent; none of the English or Swedes carn less than this amount. Of those earning under $600 or under $500

$ per year, the Poles and Slovaks again report much the largest proportions, the former showing a larger per cent than the latter earning under $600, while each report 100 per cent earning less than $800. The smallest proportions earning under $600, $800, and $1,000 are reported by the English and Swedes.

ANSUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The approximate yearly earnings of all males 18 years of age or over who were working for wages, whether they were heads, children, or boarders and lodgers, are shown in the following table by general nativity and race of individual:

Table 147.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general

nativity and race of individual.

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Of 415 males 18 years of age or over reporting complete data, the average earnings are $594 per year. The average yearly earnings of the foreign-born are slightly in excess of those of native-born of foreign father, while the native-born of native father show average yearly earnings greater than the foreign-born. Of the native-born of foreign father, those whose fathers were Irish report, much higher average yearly earnings than those whose fathers were Bohemians and Moravians or Poles. Comparing the yearly earnings of the different foreign races, it is seen that the English show much higher earnings than the Swedes, who are second, and the average earnings of all the older immigrant races are higher than those of the more recent ones, with the exception of North Italian, which race stands third. The Russians report the lowest average, while the average yearly earnings of none of the following-named races reach $500: Russian, Magyar, Slovak, Polish, and South Italian. A very small proportion,

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