Lapas attēli
PDF
ePub

without occupation—the Swedish showing the largest, or 11.5 per cent, and the Bohemian and Moravian 3.6 per cent.

Of the total number, it will be observed that only 10.4 per cent had any previous experience in slaughtering and meat-packing abroad, 8.9 per cent had been factory operatives, and a small percentage had been in hand trades and other occupations, or were employed as laborers. The largest proportion, 46.9 per cent, were either farmers or farm laborers, and hence entered the slaughtering and meatpacking industry with little knowledge of machinery or manufacturing methods. Bohemians and Moravians, North Italians, and Swedes are the only races having had any previous experience in the industry, Bohemians and Moravians showing 21.4 per cent and North Italians slightly more than one-half as large a proportion. Only 3,8 per cent of the Swedes had been employed in the industry. The above mentioned races also show the highest per cent having been factory operatives or in hand trades.

Ninety-one per cent of the Slovaks and 81.5 per cent of the Poles have been either farmers or farm laborers.

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING

TO THE UNITED STATES.

The table next submitted shows by race the per cent of 10,278 foreign-born male employees in the Chicago packing houses who were in each specified occupation before coming to the United States. TABLE 138.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

Of the foreign-born male employees in this locality only 4.9 per cent were employed abroad in slaughtering and meat packing, as against 56.2 per cent employed in farming or farm labor, 18.5 per cent employed in general labor, 8.9 per cent employed in hand trades, and 11.4 per cent otherwise employed. The proportion of individuals employed abroad in slaughtering and meat packing is much larger for the Bohemians and Moravians, English, and Germans than for the individuals of any other race.

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF WOMEN AT THE PRESENT TIME IN THE

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The two tables next presented set forth by general nativity and race of individual the principal occupations in Chicago at the present time of the male and female members of the households studied who were 16 years of age or over. The table immediately following includes the female members of the households.

.

Table 139.-General occupation of females 16 years of age or over, by general nativity

and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

Upon information secured from 450 females in this locality, by far the largest proportion, or 83.1 per cent, are at home, 10.7 per cent are in occupations not specified, while very small proportions are at school, in domestic service, and in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry.

Comparing the native-born of foreign father with the foreignborn, it will be noted that in only one instance does the proportion of the latter exceed that of the former, the foreign-born reporting 96.6 per cent of the females at home, as compared with 42.9 per cent of the native-born of foreign father. As regards those in occupa

. tions not specified, the native-born of foreign father report 38.4 per cent and the foreign-born only 1.5 per cent.

Of the foreign-born races, the Bohemians and Moravians alone report a proportion in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry and in domestic service, while the Germans alone report a proportion at school. The North Italians, Poles, Slovaks, and Swedes each report their entire number at home.

Comparing the Bohemians and Moravians, native-born of foreign father, with those of foreign birth, it will be seen that, with the exception of the proportion reported at home, the proportion of the former in each occupation is very much larger than that of the latter, the greatest difference occurring in occupations not specified.

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF MALES AT THE PRESENT TIME IN THE HOUSE

HOLDS STUDIED.

The following table shows the general occupation of males at the present time in the households studied:

Table 140.-General occupation of males 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and

race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

The above table shows that, of 470 males from whom information was secured in this locality, 85.3 per cent are in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, 11.9 per cent in occupations not specified in the above table, and 2.8 per cent are at school.

Comparing the native-born of foreign father with the foreign-born, it will be noted that almost the entire per cent of the latter, as compared with 46.4 per cent of the former, are in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, while a much greater proportion of the former than the latter are in occupations not specified and at school. As regards the foreign-born, with the exception of 5.9 per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians, who are in occupations other than those specified, the entire number of each race is in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry. None of the Bohemians and Moravians or Poles, native-born of foreign father, are at home and only a small proportion of each are at school, the former reporting 3.1 per cent, as compared with 8.3 per cent of the latter. Comparing the proportions emploved in the slaughtering and meat packing, it will be noted that the Poles report a much larger proportion than the Bohemians and Moravians.

DAILY EARNINGS.

In the series of tables next presented the daily earnings of the Chicago slaughtering and packing employees are considered. The following table shows, by general nativity and race, the range in daily earnings of 13,845 male employees who were 18 years of age or over: Table 141.-Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per day, by general nativity and race.

*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary los: time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

In this locality almost all of the male employees 18 years of age or over earn at least $1.50 a day, while 18.8 per cent earn $2.50 a day or over and 7.8 per cent $3 or over. The proportion of employees earning $1.75 or over, $2 or over, and $2.50 or over, respectively, is largest for the native-born of native father, white, second largest for the native-born of foreign father, and larger for the native-born of native father, negro, than for the foreign-born. Of the foreignborn, the Swedes have the largest and the Russians the smallest proportion of individuals earning $1.75 per day or over, or $2 per day or over.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per day. Table 142.-Per cent of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each

specified amount per day, by general nativity and race.

*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

[blocks in formation]

* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

In this locality 86.2 per cent of the males between 14 and 18 years of age for whom information was secured earn $1 per day or over, 66.4 per cent earn $1.25, and 38.4 per cent earn $1.50 or over, while only a small proportion earn $1.75 per day or over. The proportion of individuals earning each specified sum is considerably larger for the foreign-born than for either the native-born of native father or the native-born of foreign father.

RELATION BETWEEN PERIOD OF RESIDENCE AND EARNING ABILITY.

The following table not only shows the extent to which increased skill and efficiency as reflected by growth in earning ability is developed after designated periods of residence of foreign-born employees in Chicago, but also by bringing the periods of residence under the several races renders it possible to study the advancement in earning ability of each race according to period of residence in this country It should be noted both in this and the following table that the residence in the United States and the period of employment in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry are not necessarily the same.

« iepriekšējāTurpināt »