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mian and Moravian employees 4.3 per cent. No employees of any of the other specified races show over 3 per cent of the total number of male employees for whom information was secured.

REASONS FOR EMPLOYING RECENT IMMIGRANTS.

The chief reason for employing recent immigrants has been the tendency of the Irish, Germans, and Americans to seek other work. This process has been gradual, becoming more marked about 1899 and 1900, when increased industrial prosperity gave greater opportunities to the English-speaking workmen.

The greatest racial change seems to have been the case of the Irish. Within a few years most of them had left the packing houses and gone into other lines of work, especially as motormen and conductors on street-railway lines and newly constructed interurban lines.

There seems to be only one acknowledged case, and it unimportant, where the immigrant has been employed as a strike-breaker. This occurred in 1904, when some Greeks and quite a number of negroes were employed for that purpose.

METHODS OF SECURING IMMIGRANTS.

The majority of the plants have either an employment bureau or some one man who is selected by the superintendent to pass upon the applicants. These men state that they experience no trouble in securing labor, as every day any number of applicants appear. They accept such men as present themselves from time to time who appear capable to do the work, regardless of race. The supply, of course, is greater in some seasons than in others. It is said that this class of work, because of it not being so regular, appeals most strongly to the negro.

Immigrants and native-born laborers are paid the same for the same class of work. For example, splitters 50, backers 45, rumpers 421, hide droppers and neck splitters 324 cents per hour. When questioned on this subject, the American laborer admits the accuracy of the foregoing scale, but by way of strengthening his contention claims that the immigrant is very often kept on this work for some little time after learning it before his pay is raised to the regular wage for the particular occupation he has entered.

EFFECT OF THE EMPLOYMENT OF IMMIGRANTS UPON FORMER

EMPLOYEES.

Native-born labor for some time past has been slowly giving way to immigrant labor in the industry, but whether this displacement has been voluntary or involuntary is a question that can best be answered by recording briefly the simple statements of the employer on the one hand and, on the other, of representatives of labor organizations.

The employer states that the native-born or American laborer does not apply for work as he formerly did, and therefore his place is being taken by the immigrant, who is constantly seeking employment. This contention is met by the other side with the statement that the American laborer does not apply because of the low wages and irregularity of work; also that the low standard of living of immigrants in general makes it necessary for the American laborer to seek other employment in order to make proper provision for his family. While these statements are somewhat a repetition of the reasons for employing immigrants, they show that there is no discrimination against the American laborer, so far as opportunities for employment is concerned. The companies arrange their scale of wages, and it remains for the American laborer to decide whether to apply or not apply for work. The contention of the early employees is, however, that the supply of recent immigrants who were ready to work for low wages made possible the fixing of such a wage scale by the companies, and as a consequence made it impossible for the American to apply for work, and rendered it necessary for him to seek other employment.

To note the displacement that has occurred in the industry, it is only necessary to recall a statement already made to the effect that the Americans, Germans, and Irish were the races first employed, and compare this statement with the table exhibiting the percentage of each race employed at present. From this comparison it will be seen that the Americans, Germans, and Irish that were almost exclusively employed in the beginning have decreased until they represent less than 50 per cent of the present force. While this displacement has been greater in the unskilled class, almost complete, in fact, in which all the more recent immigrants have had a part, it by no means stops there. In very nearly every department and occupation will be found representatives of at least one of the more recent races. This is especially true of the Bohemians, who are considered bright and very efficient. The Poles also have been able to advance themselves from the unskilled to the skilled occupations, but not in such numbers as the Bohemians. The other races of recent immigration employed are principally engaged as common laborers.

a

PROGRESS AND PREFERENCE.

Reference has already been made to the advancement of the Poles, and especially of the Bohemians, to the more skilled occupations. Occasionally also, when they are intelligent and have become familiar with the English language, a few recent immigrants will be found as foremen.

As regards the opinions of the officials of the various companies relative to the employees, excluding the Americans, the Germans, Irish, and Bohemians are considered the best on the basis of general efficiency; the Germans, Bohemians, and Irish, in the order named, most progressive; and the Irish, Germans, Bohemians, Poles, and Lithuanians, in the order named, as being the most tractable and having the greatest degree of adaptability. The Germans, Bohemians, Irish, Lithuanians, and Poles, in the foregoing order, are stated to be the most industrious. All employers agree that the class of immigrants coming under their observation at present are not to be compared with those of the same races that came to this country some years ago, either mentally or physically.

a See page 201.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied—General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied-Daily earnings- Relation between period of residence and earning ability-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family income_Wives at work-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-- Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers-Sources of family income-Relative importance of different sources of family income-[Text Tables 134 to 155 and General Tables 63 to 77].

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSE

HOLDS STUDIED.

An examination of the industrial status while abroad of the foreign-born employees of the slaughtering and meat-packing establishments affords an insight into the training and experience which the immigrants have had for the work in which they are at present engaged and a basis for comparison of their economic condition in the United States with that of their native countries. In this connection, the following tables show by race of individual the industrial condition, before coming to the United States, of foreign-born females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of their arrival in this country:

Table 134.- Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born

females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, ty race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.)

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34.9

8.5

TABLE 135.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who

were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OP HOUSEHOLDS.)

(This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.)

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Of the 258 females studied in the above table, it will be seen that the largest proportion, or 56.2 per cent, were without occupation, 34.9 per cent were working for wages, 8.5 per cent were working without wages, and 0.4 per cent were working for profit.

As regards the various races, it will be seen that of those without occupation the Swedish shows the largest and the Polish the smallest proportion, while of those working for wages, the Polish shows the largest and the Slovak the smallest, and of those working without wages, the Slovak shows the largest and, with the exception of the German and Swedish, which show none, the North Italian the smallest, Only one race, the North Italian, shows a proportion who were working for profit.

The table shows further that 19 per cent were farmers or farm laborers, 19.4 per cent were in domestic service, and only small proportions were factory operatives, in hand trades, or were engaged in other occupations.

Poles report 57.2 per cent having been farmers or farm laborers, followed in the order named by Slovaks, North Italians, Germans, Bohemians and Moravians, and Swedes. Germans show the largest proportion having been in domestic service abroad, and are followed by Swedes, North Italians, Bohemians and Moravians, Poles, and Slovaks in the order mentioned. Bohemians and Moravians alone report having been factory operatives. All of the races except the Slovak show between 3.6 and 5 per cent having been in hand trades, none of the last named race having followed this occupation.

The following table shows the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual: TABLE 136.— Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born

males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOCSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Table 137.Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Of the 269 males studied in the above table, it will be seen that the largest proportion, or 69.5 per cent, were working for wages, 14.5 per cent were working without wages, 11.2 per cent were working for profit, and 4.8 per cent were without occupation before coming to the United States. As regards the different races, it will be seen that of those working for wages, the North Italian shows the largest and the Slovak the smallest proportion, while of those working without wages the Slovak shows the largest and the Polish the smallest, and of those working for profit the Slovak shows the largest and the Swedish the smallest. Only two races report a proportion who were

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