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CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households-Racial classification of employees at the present time-Reasons for employing recent immigrants-Methods of securing immigrants-Effect of the employment of immigrants upon former employeesProgress and preference [Text Tables 131 to 133 and General Tables 61 and 62].

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

In the early days of the industry in Chicago, during the years 1875 to 1880, the Irish and Germans were considered the best butchers, and naturally predominated in this occupation. This opinion was so deep rooted that it was contended that only an Irishman knew how to cure meat, and only a German could make sausage. With these races held in such high regard, it is not to be wondered at that upon the establishment of the large packing houses in Chicago, Irish and Germans, with Americans and a few Scotch and English, should have composed the entire force employed, both in the skilled and unskilled occupations.

The first pronounced immigration to the section of the city in which the stock yards are located was Irish, in 1844 and for seven years afterwards, corresponding to the great influx of the Irish into this country at that time. Following the Irish came the Germans in 1855, or possibly earlier. From 1855 to 1860, and again after the civil war and through the Franco-Prussian war, the Germans came annually in large numbers, and until 1880 the bulk of the immigrants who settled in South Chicago were Germans. But the stock yards district, as defined above, was not settled by these early immigrants until much later. Thirty-three years ago it was little else than one broad sweep of prairie land, with very few families living on it. It was not until the seventies that there was gradually built up around the packing houses an Irish settlement known as the "Patch." The Germans began coming in considerable numbers about the same time. They appear to have become well established by 1879, for in that year the first German church in this locality was built. It is certain that until 1889 they, with the Irish, constituted the bulk of the population in the district. From that time on, however, the tide of Polish, Bohemian, and, latterly, Slovak, Lithuanian, and other southern European immigration, set in so strongly as to rapidly become predominant. With the early Irish and German immigrants were also some representatives of the English, Scotch, Welsh, and French races. Although the Poles and Bohemians began coming at about the same time, the Bohemians seem to have been the pioneers of the races from southern and eastern Europe. The year 1882

marks the beginning of Bohemian immigration, and by 1889 they had become well established in the district. At the time of establishment of the first Bohemian parish, in 1892, there were 600 Bohemian families in the district. Since that year they have been coming to the district regularly, but in comparatively small numbers. The first Poles entered the district about 1884. At that time there was still plenty of open space therein, and it was as much for the purpose of securing garden and truck spots as to secure work in the yards that the Poles settled in the locality.

Commencing about 1890, a movement to the district began among the other southern European races. Notable among these more recent arrivals, in point of numbers, were the Slovaks. With them came Ruthenians, Magyars, Croatians, Slovenians, Servians, and Syrians. It was not until after 1900 that the Lithuanians, Greeks, Russians, Italians, and Russian Hebrews were added to the list. These races are small in numbers as compared with the earlier immigrants.

The Irish and Germans (first and second generations) and the Poles, of the earlier immigrants, together with the Bohemians and Lithuanians, make up the bulk of the district's population at the present time. Not only has the Irish and German immigration practically ceased, but many families of these races are now moving from the district. Up to 1905 the Poles had been coming in the greatest numbers annually, and at present outnumber any other race. While the Bohemian increase has not been so heavy, it has been perhaps more consistent. At the present time the greatest relative increase lies between the Slovaks and Lithuanians. The immigration of these races, up to the past few years, consisted largely of men, who are now just beginning to bring in their families. There are at present about 150 Slovaks who are householders. On the other hand, the very small number of Bohemian men without families in the district is noteworthy. The following statement shows in a summary form the estimated foreign-born population, by races, at the present time:

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This estimate leaves out of consideration the Hebrews, who undoubtedly form a considerable element in the population of the district. Neither does the estimate include the families of the second generation. With the addition of those the estimate for the Irish and German races would be at least doubled.

The history of the employment of the several races in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry has corresponded roughly to the time of arrival of each race in the district. The relative proportions of the

several races employed at the present time in the Chicago slaughtering and meat-packing establishments are estimated to be as follows:

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The racial displacements which have occurred are made manifest by the foregoing statement. It will be recalled that Americans, Germans, and Irish were exclusively employed at the establishment of the industry, but the statement shows that these people together form only 49 per cent of the present operating forces. The Irish and Germans have fong ceased to do the common labor of the industry, and those that remain in the industry are employed as foremen or skilled workers. This is true to a less extent of the Bohemians and Poles. The disagreeable and unskilled work is now performed by the Slovaks, Lithuanians, and other races of recent immigration. Many of the pioneer employees migrated to Kansas City, Omaha, and other localities. where the packing industry was established a number of years after its beginning in Chicago. The larger proportion, however, entered other industries and pursuits. A considerable number of the Germans who remained in the industry seem to have been influenced largely by the fact that they had purchased homes. The Irish, on the other hand, have stayed in the industry largely because they have been advanced to positions as foremen and skilled workers.

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS.

The racial movements to the industry may also be seen from the series of tables next submitted showing the period of residence in this country of foreign-born employees and members of their households, the period of service as a rule approximating the number of years in the United States.

The table first submitted shows by race the per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified number of years.

a Includes American negroes.

The question as to whether such displacements were voluntary or involuntary is discussed on page 205.

48296° -VOL 13-11-14

TABLE 131.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified number of years, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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In this locality 36.8 per cent of the foreign-born male employees, for whom information was secured, have been in the United States under five years, 22.8 per cent have been here from five to nine years, 6.1 per cent have been here from ten to fourteen years, 9.4 per cent have been here from fifteen to nineteen years, and 25 per cent have been here twenty years or over. The proportion of individuals who have been here under five years is largest for the Greeks and smallest for the Canadians other than French, while the proportion of individuals who have been here from five to nine years is largest for the Croatians, and smallest for the Canadians other than French. The Lithuanians have the largest and the Slovenians the smallest proportion of individuals who have been here from ten to fourteen years, and the Canadians other than French have the largest and the Greeks the smallest proportion of individuals who have been here from fifteen to nineteen years. None of the Slovenians and Greeks and a larger proportion of Irish, English, Germans, and Scotch than of the individuals of any other race have been here twenty years or

over.

The following table shows by race of individual the per cent of foreign-born persons in the households studied who had been in the United States each specified number of years:

TABLE 132.-Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of years, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

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The above table shows that of 727 persons from whom complete data were secured, 19.4 per cent of this number have been in the United States under five years, 39.3 per cent under ten years, and 63.5 per cent have been here under twenty years. The South Italians and Russians show a considerably higher per cent of persons with a residence of under five years than the other races given in the table, while Germans, Swedes, and Irish show very small proportions having this period of residence. The South Italians, Russians, Magyars, Poles, and North Italians all show 50 per cent or over who have been in the United States under ten years. The Swedes and Irish show small proportions in this group. The South Italians show 100 per cent, the Russians show over 90 per cent, and North Italians, Slovaks, and Magyars over 80 per cent who have been in this country under twenty years. The Germans, English, and Swedes show less than 50 per cent in this group, while the Irish show only 17.5 per cent who have been in the United States under twenty years. It is particularly noticeable that races from northern Europe show a longer length of residence than those from southern and eastern Europe.

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