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The following table shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the persons in the households studied for whom detailed information was secured:

TABLE 129.-Persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general

nativity and race of individual.

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Native-born of native father, White ....
Native-born of foreign father, by race of
father:

Bohemian and Moravian.
English.
German.
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Magyar.
Polish
Russian.
Slovak

Swedish. oreign-born:

Bohemian and Moravian..
Canadian (other than French).
English..
German.
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Magyar.
Polish.
Russian.
Slovak
Swedish.

Grand total.......
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born..

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122

1 26 36 21 30 25 16 31 11 29 28

14.5

.1 3.1 4.3 2. 5 3.6

108

5 18 29 19 31 24 13 34 13 29 28

14.0

.6 2.3 3.8 2.5 4.0 3.1 1.7 4.4 1.7 3.8 3.6

3.0

2.7 4.0 2.5 3.8 3.0 1.8 4.0 1.5 3.6 3.5

1.9 3.7 1.3 3.4 3.3

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1,614

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Of a total of 1,614 individuals reporting detailed information in this locality, a larger proportion of both males and females are nativeborn of foreign parentage than either native-born of native parentage or foreign-born-a much larger proportion, however, being foreignborn than native-born of native parentage.

As regards the different races, the largest proportion of both the native-born of foreign parentage and the foreign-born males, as well as females, are Bohemians and Moravians, while the smallest proportion of the native-born of foreign parentage are Russians, and the smallest proportion of foreign-born are Canadians other than French.

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

The following table and chart show the male employees of each race for whom information was secured: Table 130.— Male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity and

race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

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a Less than 0.05 per cent.

Number of employees for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race.

[This chart shows only races represented by 50 or more employees.)

GENERAL NATIVITY AND RACE

1000

2000

3000

4000

NATIVE-BORNOF NATNE FATHER

WHITE

NEGRO
NATIVE-BORN OF FOREIGN FATHEA
BY COUNTRY OF BIRTH OF FATHER1

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
CANADA
ENGLAND
GERMANY
IRELAND

RUSSIA
FOREIGN-BORN,BY RACE

BOHEMIAN AND MORAVIAN
CANADIAN(OTHER THAN FRENCY
CROATIAN
ENGLISH
GERMAN
GREEK
IRISH
ITALIAN, SOUTH
LITHUANIAN
MAGYAR
POLISH
RUSSIAN
SCOTCH
SLOVAK
SLOVENIAN
SWEDISH

CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households—Racial classification of employees at the present time—Reasons for employing recent immigrants-Methods of securing immigrants-Effect of the employment of immigrants upon former employees Progress and preference— [Text Tables 131 to 133 and General Tables 61 and 62).

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

In the early days of the industry in Chicago, during the years 1875 to 1880, the Irish and Germans were considered the best butchers, and naturally predominated in this occupation. This opinion was so deep rooted that it was contended that only an Irishman knew how to cure meat, and only a German could make sausage. With these races held in such high regard, it is not to be wondered at that upon the establishment of the large packing houses in Chicago, Irish and Germans, with Americans and a few Scotch and English, should have composed the entire force employed, both in the skilled and unskilled occupations.

The first pronounced immigration to the section of the city in which the stock yards are located was Irish, in 1844 and for seven years afterwards, corresponding to the great influx of the Irish into this country at that time. Following the Irish came the Germans in 1855, or possibly earlier. From 1855 to 1860, and again after the civil war and through the Franco-Prussian war, the Germans came annually in large numbers, and until 1880 the bulk of the immigrants who settled in South Chicago were Germans. But the stock yards district, as defined above, was not settled by these early immigrants until much later. Thirty-three years ago it was little else than one broad sweep of prairie land, with very few families living on it. It was not until the seventies that there was gradually built up

, around the packing houses an Irish settlement known as the "Patch. The Germans began coming in considerable numbers about the same time. They appear to have become well established by 1879, for in that year the first German church in this locality was built. It is certain that until 1889 they, with the Irish, constituted the bulk of the population in the district. From that time on, however, the tide of Polish, Bohemian, and, latterly, Slovak, Lithuanian, and other southern European immigration, set in so strongly as to rapidly become predominant. With the early Irish and German immigrants were also some representatives of the English, Scotch, Welsh, and French races. Although the Poles and Bohemians began coming at about the same time, the Bohemians seem to have been the pioneers of the races from southern and eastern Europe. The year 1882

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