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Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by race.

[This chart shows only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

Per cent of foreign-born female employees who speak English, by race.

[This chart shows only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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From the foregoing table it appears that 54 per cent of the males for whom information was secured can speak English as compared with 27.8 per cent of the females. The proportion of males who speak English is largest among the Swedes, Danes, Norwegians, Hebrews other than Russian, and Germans, in the order mentioned, and smallest among the Roumanians, Bulgarians, and Servians. All of the Dutch, Hebrew other than Russian, and Swedish females and a larger proportion of the Russian Hebrew, German, and Bohemian and Moravian females than of the females of any other race can speak English.

The two tables next presented exhibit the ability to speak English manifested by the employees in the slaughtering and meat packing centers studied. The first table, which immediately follows, shows the per cent of persons in the households studied, 6 years of age or over, who were able to speak English. The showing is by locality, sex, and general nativity and race of individual.

TABLE 120.-Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by locality, by sex, and by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

!This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting in each of two or more localities. The totals, however, are for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Upon referring to the table, it is at once evident, as might be expected, that a considerably larger proportion of both males and females of the second generation, as compared with those of foreign birth, are able to speak English. It is also significant that in each locality, as well as in the industry as a whole, a much smaller per cent of females of foreign birth, as compared with males, can speak English. In Chicago 84.2 per cent of foreign-born males and 56.7 per cent of females, in Kansas City 72.5 per cent of males and 38.3 per cent of females, and in South Omaha 70.9 per cent of the males and 60.8 per cent of the females are able to speak English. From these percentages it is also apparent that a smaller proportion of

foreign-born males in South Omaha than in Kansas City or Chicago, and a smaller proportion of foreign-born females in Kansas City than in Chicago or South Omaha, are able to use the English language. Among the foreign-born in each locality the Germans have a larger proportion both of males and females able to speak English. With the exception of the German and Polish females in South Omaha, each of the three races of foreign-born employees also have a larger percentage of their number in Chicago, both of males and females, who can speak English.

The following table shows the per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, according to locality and race of individual.

TABLE 121.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by locality and by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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The above table shows that the proportion of foreign-born male employees who speak English is largest at South Omaha, second largest at Kansas City, and smallest at Chicago. The Croatians, South Italians, Servians, Slovaks, and Slovenians have a larger proportion of individuals who speak English at Kansas City than at either South Omaha or Chicago; the Greeks and Magyars have a larger proportion of individuals who speak English at Chicago than at either Kansas City or South Omaha, and all the other races for which data are presented have a larger proportion of individuals who speak English at South Omaha than at Kansas City or Chicago.

The greater adaptability and consequently the greater advancement of younger as compared with older immigrants in acquiring the ability to speak English is set forth by the tabulation which follows. The table next presented shows, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual, the per cent of foreignborn persons in the households studied 6 years of age or over who were able to speak English.

TABLE 122.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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From computations based upon a total of 2,139 individuals reporting complete data, the above table shows 89.3 per cent of those who were under 14 years of age, as compared with 58.7 per cent of those who were 14 years of age or over, at time of coming to the United States speak English.

As regards the different races, it will be seen that, with the exception of the Lithuanian, each race for which a computation is made shows that a certain proportion of those who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States can not speak English-the South Italian, followed by the Slovak and Croatian, showing the largest and the German the smallest. Each race, except the Swedish, shows a certain proportion of those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States who can not speak Englishthe Japanese, followed by the South Italian and Croatian, showing the largest and the German, preceded by the Lithuanian and North Italian, the smallest. While, with the exceptions noted above, each race shows a proportion of those of each specified age at time of coming to the United States who can not speak English, it will be seen that the proportion of those who were 14 years of age or over is larger in each instance than the proportion of those who were under 14 years

of age.

The progress made by members of non-English-speaking races in acquiring the ability to speak English after designated periods of residence may be seen in the next table presented. The table which immediately follows shows by years in the United States and race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born persons in the households studied 6 years of age or over on non-English-speaking races who were able to speak English.

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