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TABLE 116.—Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States each specified number of years and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by locality and by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 100 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

IN UNITED STATES 5 TO 9 YEARS.

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Of the total number of employees in slaughtering and meat packing in Chicago, Kansas City, and South Omaha who have been in the United States from five to nine years, 7.8 per cent are fully naturalized and 25.8 per cent have first papers only. In South Omaha the Bohemians and Moravians and Poles show much larger proportions of fully naturalized citizens than they do in Chicago. On the other hand, in Kansas City the Germans show a decidedly greater proportion who are naturalized than they do in either Chicago or South Omaha. Of those having taken up first papers only, greater proportions of all races in this condition are found in South Omaha than in Chicago or Kansas City.

Of those who have been in the country ten years or over, 71.5 per cent are fully naturalized and 14 per cent have their first papers. Considerably larger proportions of each race are shown to have become citizens in Chicago than in either of the other packing centers. South Omaha, however, shows the greatest proportion who have declared their intention of becoming citizens by taking out their first papers.

Over 44 per cent of those who have been in the United States five years or over are naturalized, and over 19 per cent have taken out their first papers. More Bohemians and Moravians and Germans in Chicago are naturalized than in either Kansas City or Omaha, but with the Poles very similar proportions are shown to have been naturalized in Chicago and South Omaha. Greater proportions of all races have taken out their first papers in South Omaha than either in Chicago or Kansas City.

The following table shows, by locality and race of individual, the political condition of foreign-born males, in the households studied, who have been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of their arrival in this country. Table 117.Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United

States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by locality and by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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The larger proportion of fully naturalized persons is shown for South Omaha and Chicaço, the tendency in each of these localities toward naturalization being more pronounced than that shown for the industry as a whole, while the exhibit for Kansas City is below the general showing for the total foreign-born employees. On the other hand, the foreign-born in South Omaha indicate the greatest tendency toward naturalization, 26.1 per cent of the total in that locality having taken out first papers. A similar tendency is also exhibited in Kansas City, where 25.7 per cent have secured first papers. On the other hand, only 14.5 per cent in Chicago have first papers only. The highest percentage of fully naturalized Germans is shown for South Omaha, and of Bohemians and Moravians in Chicago. In South Omaha, both the Germans and Bohemians and Moravians have the largest proportions with first papers only.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The extent to which English was spoken by the employees of foreign birth and members of their households who were of nonEnglish-speaking races is set forth in the series of tables which follow. The first table presented shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the per cent of persons of non-English-speaking races in the households studied, 6 years of age or over, who were able to speak English.

TABLE 118.- Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and

general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, how

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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The above table shows that of 3,210 persons in this industry for whom information was obtained, 76.3 per cent speak English-the native-born of foreign father reporting a very much larger proportion than the foreign-born. The table further shows that a larger proportion of males than females speak English; also that while a considerably larger porportion of males and a very much larger proportion of females, native-born of foreign father than of the foreign-born speak English, the proportion of females with ability to speak English is slightly larger than the proportion of males among the native-born of foreign father and considerably smaller among the foreign-born. .

As regards the proportions of males with ability to speak English among the various foreign-born races, it will be noted that the Swedes alone report 100 per cent. Closely following the Swedes are the Lithuanians and Germans, while the Japanese report only 18.4 per cent.

With the exception of the Swedes, each race reports a smaller proportion of females than males with ability to speak English-the difference being much more marked as regards some races than others. It will also be noted from the above table that, with the exception of the Swedes,

each race reports a proportion of females who are unable to speak English-these proportions, in some instances, being

, extremely large. By way of illustration, 79.2 per cent of the South Italian, 71.2 per cent of the Croatian, and 71 per cent of the Slovak females are unable to speak English.

Among the native-born of foreign father, the Croatian and Polish males and the Bohemian and Moravian and Polish females each show a very small proportion unable to speak English. The only instance in which a larger proportion of females than males speak English is among the Croatians, native-born of foreign father.

It will be seen, therefore, from the above table that of all races reporting, without regard to sex, only three, the foreign-born Swedes and the Swedes and Germans, native-born of foreign father, report their entire number able to speak English. Following these races, and reporting each over 98 per cent with ability to speak English, are the Bohemians and Moravians, Croatians, and Poles, native-born of foreign father, while of the remaining races the Germans report the largest proportion, or 88.2 per cent, and the Japanese the smallest proportion, or 18.2 per cent.

. The following table and charts show, by sex and race, the per cent of foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races who were able to speak English.

Table 119.- Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, how

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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Bohemian and Moravian.
Bulgarian.
Croatian.
Danish..
Dutch
German.
Greek.
Hebrew, Russian..
Hebrew, Other..
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Japanese.
Lithuanian
Magyar.
Norwegian.
Polish..
Roumanian
Russian..
Servian.
Slovak
Slovenian.
Swedish..

83.3 100.0

1,614

140 1, 492 137

85
3; 139

389
185

75
104
166

144 2,503

417

132 6,246

406 950

1,743

142 1,591 139

90
3,299

389
191

80
104
166

144 2,840

467

132 6,961

432

64.7
24. 3
54. 1
95.6
83.5
87.4
41.6
81.1
89.3
51.0
36. 1
65.3
44.9
40.8
94.7
41.9
22.9
38.0
26.4
43. 1
48.0
96.7

63.7 25.4 52. 1 95. 7 84. 4 86.0 41.6 81.2 90.0 51.0 36. 1 65. 3 41. 4 37.5 94.7 39.8 22.2 37.2 26.3 41.9 47.3 96.7

337

50

15. 4
10.0

989

715
26
39

21.0 11.5

296 1, 125

342 514

4 71 53 6

300 1, 196

395 520

17.9 (a) 22.5 43. 4 100.0

Total.

21,514

1,736

23, 250

54.0

27.8

52. 1

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

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Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by race. (This chart shows only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking racer.)

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