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Per cent of female employees 14 to 19 years of age, by general nativity and race.

[This chart shows only races with 100 or more reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

19.3 per

From the data presented in the foregoing table it appears that 9.4 per cent of the male employees for whom information was secured are from 14 to 19 years of age; that 20.3 per cent are from 20 to 24; that

cent are from 25 to 29; that 13.9 per cent are from 30 to 34; that 19.9 per cent are from 35 to 44; that 12 per cent are from 45 to 54; and that 5.3 per cent are 55 or over. The proportion of male employees from 25 to 29, from 35 to 44, from 45 to 54, and 55 or over, respectively, is larger, and the proportion of male employees from 20 to 24 is smaller for the foreign-born than for either the native-born of foreign father, the native-born of native father, white, or the native-born of native father, negro. The proportion of employees from 30 to 34 years of age is largest for the native-born of native father, negro, second largest for the foreign-born, and smallest for the nativeborn of foreign father. Of the foreign-born, the Servians, Croatians, North Italians, and Greeks have the largest and the Irish and Swedes the smallest proportion of male employees from 20 to 24 years of age; the Japanese and Bulgarians have the largest and the Canadians other than French the smallest proportion of employees from 25 to 29 years of age; and the Slovenians, Magyars, and North Italians have the largest and the Irish the smallest proportion of employees from 30 to 34 years of age. The proportion of males from 35 to 44 years of age is largest for the Swedes, Canadians other than French, and Irish, in the order mentioned; the proportion of males from 45 to 54 years of age is largest for the Irish, Danes, and Germans, in the order mentioned; and the proportion of males 55 years of age or over is largest for the English, Dutch, and Irish, in the order mentioned.

Of the female employees, 47.2 per cent are from 14 to 19, 28.8 per cent are from 20 to 24, 10 per cent are from 25 to 29, 5 per cent are from 30 to 34, 6.3 per cent are from 35 to 44, 2.1 per cent are from 45 to 54, and only 0.6 per cent are 55 or over. The proportion of foreign-born females is much larger than for the males in the younger age groups, and this same tendency is marked in each race.

The total is a combination of data reported for males and females, and the proportions are similar to those shown for the males.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION. Relative efficiency of races employed-Ownership of homes_Status of children in

the households studied-Citizenship-Ability to speak English-[Text Tables 109 to 125 and General Tables 49 to 57).

RELATIVE EFFICIENCY OF RACES EMPLOYED. As regards the industrial efficiency of the various races and peoples employed in the industry, the companies find it impossible to make a very close distinction among members of races of recent immigration. The native white employees of native father, together with the Irish, Germans, and Swedes of the first and second generation are generally considered superior to all other employees. Considering all persons employed, the opinions of employers, so far as they can be harmonized, would divide the operating forces into three classes, upon the basis of general efficiency, as follows: First class, Americans, Irish, Germans, and German Bohemians; second class, Bohemians, Slovaks, Lithuanians, Magyars, Poles, and Croatians; third class, South Italians, Macedonians, Greeks, Turks, and Armenians.

OWNERSHIP OF HOMES.

The ownership of homes by families, the heads of which were foreign-born, may be considered as an indication of permanent settlement. The tendencies in this direction may be seen in the following table which shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the number and per cent of families studied who own their homes. Table 109.-Number and per cent of families owning home, by general nativity and race

of head of family.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The foregoing table discloses the significant fact that 46.1 per cent of the total number of families whose heads were born abroad and only 17.3 per cent of the total number of families whose heads were nativeborn, and 19.1 per cent of those whose heads were native-born of native father, own their homes. Of the families whose heads were of foreign birth, the largest percentage of home ownership, or 66.7 per cent, is shown by the Lithuanians and the lowest, or 16 per cent, by the English. The Germans stand close to the Lithuanians in the proportion of families owning their homes, being followed by the Bohemians and Moravians, Irish, Poles, Croatians, Swedes, North Italians, and Slovaks. With the exception of the three last-named races and the English, all other races of foreign birth have more than two-fifths of the famílies owning their homes. Of the Swedes, 39.3 per cent, 25 per cent of the North Italians, and 18.5 per cent of the Slovaks own their homes. Of the 17 South Italian families studied only 2 have acquired homes.

The following table shows by locality and general nativity and race of head of family, the per cent of families who own their homes: Table 110.- Per cent of families owning home, by locality and by general nativity and

race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more familles reporting in each of two or more localities. The

totals, however, are for all races.)

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Upon referring to the foregoing table it is seen that families living in South Omaha whose heads are of both native and foreign birth show the greatest tendency toward home ownership. About the same proportion of families in Chicago and Kansas City whose heads are of native birth own their homes, while a considerably larger proportion of immigrant families in Kansas City as compared with Chicago are owners of the homes in which they are living. In all localities the families with heads of foreign birth show a much higher percentage of home ownership than the families whose heads are native-born. Among the several immigrant races, the highest proportion of families owning their homes is shown by the 78.3 per cent of Germans in Kansas City. With this exception, the families of each race exhibit larger proportions in South Omaha owning their homes than in Chicago or Kansas City. The Poles who are shown in

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