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holds sleeping in all rooms, and the English, Irish, North Italians, Lithuanians, and Swedes, with none, the lowest. The Croatians and Poles show a very large per cent of households sleeping in all rooms except one, closely followed by the Slovaks, while the Swedes, with 3.6 per cent, show the lowest. The North Italians show thé largest proportion of households using all but two rooms for sleeping, and Poles the smallest. The Swedes show the largest proportion, 67.8 per cent, of households, closely followed by the English, having more than two rooms not used as sleeping rooms, while the Slovaks, with 3.8 per cent, show the smallest.

The following table shows, according to locality and by general nativity and race of head of household, the per cent of households sleeping in all rooms or all except one room. Table 90.- Per cent of households regularly sleeping in all rooms, or all except 1 room,

by locality and by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting in each of two or more localities. The

totals, however, are for all races.)

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Upon referring to the totals in the preceding table, the greatest degree of congestion in sleeping quarters, both for native-born and foreign-born, is seen to prevail in Kansas City. Of the households whose heads were native-born, 17.8 per cent in Kansas City sleep in all rooms or all but one room, as compared with 41.9 per cent of the households whose heads were of foreign birth. In Chicago and South Omaha also a much larger proportion of the foreign households than of native-born use all rooms or all but one for sleeping purposes; 12.3 per cent of the foreign-born as compared with 4 per cent of the native-born in Chicago, and 38.7 per cent of the foreign-born as against 7.7 per cent of the native-born in South Omaha, are found to be sleeping in all rooms or all but one. The Poles in each city show a comparatively large proportion of their households using all rooms or all except one for sleeping purposes while the Germans show a somewhat larger per cent of their households in South Omaha than in Kansas City, and the Bohemians and Moravians a considerably larger percentage in South Omaha than in Chicago, sleeping in all rooms or all rooms but one.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS. Literacy-Conjugal condition-Visits abroad-Age classification of employees and members of their households—[Text Tables 91 to 108 and General Tables 39 to 48).

LITERACY.

The literacy of the immigrant labor supply is of importance in estimating the possibilities of the growth in efficiency of the foreign-born employees and the members of their households, and is also significant in its bearing upon the problem of their assimilation. In this connection the table and charts which immediately follow set forth the degree of general literacy found among employees of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry. Table 91.--Per cent of employees who read and per cent who read and write, by sex and

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Native-born of native father:

White.

Negro..
Native-born of foreign father, by
country of birth of lather:

Austria-Hungary
Canada,
England.
France.
Germany.
Ireland.
Russia
Scotland.

Sweden.
Foreign-born, by race:

Bohemian and Moravian.
Bulgarian.
Canadian (other than French)..
Croatian..
Danish.
Dutch.
English.
German
Greek.
Hebrew, Russian.
Hebrew, Other..
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Japanese.
Lithuanian.
Magyar.
Norwegian
Polish..
Roumanian
Russian.
Scotch.
Servian
Slovak
Slovenian
Swedish.

Grand total..
Total native-born of foreign father..
Total native-born.
Total foreign-born.

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1,635

143

155 1,516 137

86
295
3, 154

394
184

76
1,840

104 169

161 2.535

421

134 6,318

413 959 160

297
1,141

342
523

1,764

145

157 1,616 139

91
300
3,317

394
190

81
1,880

104 169

161 2,877

472

134 7,054

98.3 88. 1 100.0

83. 2 100.0 96.5 99.3 98.3 90.9 96.7 100.0 98. 2 86.5 75. 1 98.8 78. 2 91.9 99.3 83.7 81.4 79.0 100.0 79.5 91.1 91.8 99.8

98.2 86.9 100.0

82.7 100.0 96.7 99.3 98.0 90.9 96.8 100.0 98.1 86.5 75.1 98.8 77.1 90.3 99.3 84.2 81.8 79.1 100.0 79.4 90.9 91.9 99.8

97.6 96.1
88. 1

(a)
99.4

(a)
81.4 74.0
99.3 (a)
95.3 100.0
98.6 100.0
97.7 91.4
89.6
94.0 100.0
100.0 100.0
97.6 95.0
83.7
74.6
98.8
73.3 55.6
91.4 70.6
99.3
80.5 79.6
81.1

83.9
75.4

67.5 100.0 i (a) 77.11 (a) 89.7 82.2 91.5 90.4 99.4 100.0

97.5 86.9

99.4 • 80.9

99.3 95.6 98.7 97.4 89.6 94.2 100.0 97.5 83.7 74.6 98.8 71.2 89. 2 99.3 80.4 81.3 75. 1 100.0 77.1 89.3 91.4 99.4

342
51

68.4
76.5

736
31
40
3
4
73
52
6

999
163

301
1,214

394

88.2
87. 1
80.0
(a)
(a)
87.7
92.3
100.0

529

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92.4 91.

91.1

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Per cent of male employees who read and write, by general nativity and race.

[This chart shows only races with 500 or more reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

NATIVE-BOAN OF NATIVE FATHER

WHITE

NEGRO
NATIVE-BORN OF FOREIGN FATHER
BY COUNTRY OF BIRTH OF FATHER

GERMANY

IRELAND
FOREIGN-BORN, BY RACE

BOHEMIAN MORAVIAN
CROATIAN
GERMAN
IRISH
LITHUANIAN
POLISH
RUSSIAN
SLOVAK

SWEDISH
TOTALS

NATIVE-BORN OF

FOREIGN FATHER
NATIVE-BORN
FOREIGN-BORN
GRAND TOTAL

[graphic]

Per cent of female employees who read and write, by general nativity and race. [This chart shows only races with 100 or more reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

NATIVEBORN OF NATIVE FATHER

WHITE
NATIVE-BORN OF FOREIGN FATHER
BY COUNTRY

OF BIRTH OF FATHER
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
GERMANY
IRELAND

RUSSIAN
FOREIGN BORN, BY RACE

BOHEMIAN "MORAVIAN
CROATIAN
GERMAN
LITHUANIAN

POLISH
TOTALS

NATIVE-BORN OF

FOREIGN FATHER
NATIVE-BORN
FOREIGN-BORN
GRAND TOTAL

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