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PART 8.-THE LEATHER MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY.

VII

IMMIGRANTS IN INDUSTRIES.

LEATHER MANUFACTURING.

This report, which was prepared under the direction of the Commission by W. Jett Lauck, superintendent of agents, forms part of the general report of the Immigration Commission on immigrants in industries.

VIII

CONTENTS.

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CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

Page.
Explanation of study....
Growth of the industry..
Increase in the number of employees.
Territory included in the investigation.
Households studied....

3 Members of households for whom detailed information was secured.

5 Employees for whom information was secured.. Preparation of the report....

11 CHAPTER II.- Racial displacements: History of immigration to the industry..

13 Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households.....

21 Racial classification of employees at the present time.

29 CHAPTER III.- Economic status: Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied...

35 Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States...

39 General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied.. 39 General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied. 41 The first and second generations compared....

41 Occupations entered in the industry..

42 Weekly earnings.....

43 Relation between period of residence and earning ability

46 Annual earnings of male heads of families studied.

48 Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied.. 50

51 Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied. Annual family income..

52 Wives at work...

53 Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers.

54 Sources of family income..

56 Relative importance of the different sources of family income.

58 Chapter IV.-Working conditions: Regularity of employment..,

61 The immigrant and organized labor.

62 Chapter V.-Housing and living conditions: Rent in its relation to standard of living.

63 Boarders and lodgers..

67 Size of apartments occupied.

68 Size of households studied.

70

71 CHAPTER VI.–Salient characteristics: Literacy..

79 Conjugal condition.

84 Visits abroad..

92 Age classification of employees and members of their households.

94 Chapter VII.-General progress and assimilation: Ownership of homes...

99 Status of children in the households studied.

100 Citizenship...:

101 Ability to speak English.

103 General tables...

111 General explanation of tables.

113 List of text tables.

195 List of general tables.

199

Congestion.

THE LEATHER MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION. Explanation of study-Growth of the industry—Increase in the number of employees—

Territory included in the investigation - Households studied-Members of house. holds for whom detailed information was secured_Employees for whom information was secured-Preparation of the report-[Text Tables i to 9 and General Tables 1 to 7).

EXPLANATION OF STUDY.

The following study of the leather-manufacturing industry includes all establishments engaged in the preparation of tanned, curried, and finished leather products. It does not include any establishments which use leather of any description as raw material for the manufacture of further products, such as harness or boots and shoes.

GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRY.

During the past forty years the leather-manufacturing industry of the United States has had a constant and rapid growth. The capital invested was $242,584,254 and the value of the annual output was $252,620,986 in the year 1905, as contrasted with a capital commitment of only $61,124,812 and a yearly production to the value of $157,237,597 in 1870. The following table sets forth in a summary form the expansion of the industry in the country as whole during the period 1870–1905, and its status in the year 1905 in the principal leather manufacturing States: Table 1.-Growth of the leather manufacturing industry in the United States, 1870–1905,

and status in principal leather manufacturing States in 1905. (Compiled from United States Census Special Reports, Manufactures, 1905, Part 3. Table 1, p. 257, and

Table 12, pp. 278-281 and 284-287.)

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