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persons per 100 rooms in households of native-born persons of native father. The foreign-born show 33.2 per cent of households having 1 or more persons per room as contrasted with only 3.3 per cent of households classed as native-born of native father having the same number of persons per room. The foreign-born also show a small proportion of households having 2 or more persons per room, while persons native-born of native father show no households having 2 or more persons per room. Of the foreign-born races, South Italians show the highest average number of persons per room and Germans the lowest. While South Italians show the highest percentage of households having 1 or more persons per room and English the lowest, none of the older immigrant races show any households having 2 or more persons per room.

The following table exhibits the range in number of persons per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 48.- Persons per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

Number of households having Per cent of households having Total Average

each specified number of per- each specified number of perGeneral nativity and num- number sons per sleeping room. sons per sleeping room. race of head

of ber of of persons household.

house- per sleep-
holds.
ing room.

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2 or

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2 or

3 or

5 or

6 or

3 or

5 or

6 or

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. Not including 1 household not reporting number of sleeping rooms.

The preceding table shows the average number of persons per sleeping room to be 173 persons per 100 sleeping rooms. The foreign-born show 178 persons per 100 sleeping rooms as compared with 141 persons per 100 sleeping rooms in households which are native-born of native father. The foreign-born show a considerably higher percentage of households having 2 or more persons per sleeping room than do the households reported as native-born of native father, the latter showing no households having 3 or more persons per sleeping room. Of the foreign-born races the greatest congestion in sleeping rooms is noted in households of the more recently arrived immigrants, i. e., the South Italians and Slovaks. South Italians show the highest per cent of households having each specified number of persons per sleeping room, while English, French, Irish, and German show only small proportions of households having more than 2 persons per sleeping room.

The final table of the series, which is next submitted, indicates the effect upon living arrangements of congestion within the households studied, by showing, according to general nativity and race of head of household, the number and percentage of households regularly sleeping in all except each specified number of rooms.

TABLE 49.-Number and per cent of households regularly sleeping in all except each

specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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In the 262 households studied in the foregoing table there is an average of 5.93 rooms each, and an average of 2.43 rooms per household are used for sleeping purposes. The nativity groups show approximately the same average number of rooms, as well as sleeping rooms, per household. The Germans show an average of 6.93 rooms per household and the English 6.88, the races of recent immigration, the South Italians and Slovaks, showing the smaller average number of sleeping rooms per household and the older immigrant races the larger. As regards the percentage of households using all except each specified number of rooms to sleep in, it is seen that none use all rooms; 2.3 use all except 1 room; and 10.3 per cent all except 2 rooms. These proportions are made up entirely of foreign-born heads of households, the native-born heads of households using all except 3 or more rooms to sleep in.

CHAPTER VI.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition-Visits abroad—Age classification of employees and

members of their households—[Text Tables 50 to 60 and General Tables 35 to 44).

LITERACY.

The general literacy of the employees of the glove-manufacturing industry is set forth in the two tables which follow. The first table presented shows, by sex and general nativity and race, the percentage of employees for whom information was secured who were able to read and percentage who were able to both read and write.

TABLE 50.Per cent of employees who read and per cent who read and write, by sex and

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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The above table shows that of the total number of persons reporting 99.3 per cent can read and 99.2 per cent can both read and write. The proportions of males able to read and to read and write are slightly greater than those of females. Both males and females who are native whites born of native father show 100 per cent who can read and write. The households native-born of foreign father report all the males and 98.8 per cent of the females as being able to read and write. The foreign-born show 99.5 per cent of males who can read as contrasted with 99 per cent who can both read and write and the females show 95.1 per cent who can read and write. Of the foreign-born the English show a greater degree of literacy among females than among males.

The following table shows, by sex, general nativity, and race of individual, the percentage of persons 10 years of age or over in the households studied who read and percentage who both read and write.

Table 51.—Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read

and write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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In the total number of persons reporting complete data in the above table the proportions of males and females are almost equal. Ninety-seven and five-tenths per cent of this number are able to read, the proportion of males who can read being somewhat higher than that of females. It is further seen that 97.3 per cent can both read and write, the percentage of males being higher than that of females. Native persons born of native father show a greater proportion of their number able to read and write than do the foreignborn, females in each case showing smaller proportions who are literate than do the males. Of the foreign-born races all except Hebrews, Irish, and South Italians show 100 per cent of both males and females who can read. South Italians show only 75 per cent of their females able to read and write. English, French, and Slovaks show 100 per cent of persons who can both read and write, followed by Hebrews, Germans, Irish, and South Italians in the order named and in smaller proportions.

The percentage of foreign-born persons who read or read and write after designated periods of residence in this country may be seen from the next table presented. This table shows, by years in the United States and race of individual, the per cent of foreignborn persons 10 years of age or over who read and the per cent who both read and write.

TABLE 52.- Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per

cent who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.

By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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Of the total of 562 individuals reporting complete data in the above table, over 95 per cent and under 98 per cent of those with each specified period of residence in the United States read and write some language. As regards those with ability to read, as well as both to read and write, the South Italian is the only race which shows a proportion who can neither read nor write in the under 5 and from 5 to 9 years' periods of residence, while the German and South Italian are the only races showing a proportion of those with a period of residence of ten years or over who can read, but can not write.

The literacy of the foreign-born persons according to their ages at the time of arrival in this country is set forth in the table next presented. This table shows the percentage of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over, in the households studied, who could read and the percentage who could both read and write, by race and age of individual at the time of coming to the United States.

TABLE 53.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per

cent who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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