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CHAPTER V.

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

Rent in its relation to standard of living-Boarders and lodgers-Size of apartments occupied-Size of households studied-Congestion-[Text Tables 37 to 49 and General Tables 23 to 34.]

RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING.

Because of congestion within the households arising from the tendency to crowd the apartments in order to reduce the per capita rent outlay, the monthly rent payments of the households, the heads of which are employed in the glove-manufacturing industry, are chiefly significant in their bearing upon the standards of living. The first table presented in this connection, which immediately follows, shows, according to general nativity and race of head of household, the average monthly rent paid per apartment, per room. and per person.

TABLE 37.-Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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Of a total of 174 households paying rent and reporting amount, it is seen that the average rent per apartment is $9.72; per room, $1.78; and per person, $2.35. The foreign-born show a lower average rent per apartment and per person than do the native-born, each paying the same rent per room. Of the several foreign-born races the English, followed by the Hebrew and German, pays the highest, and the Slovak, preceded by the French and Irish, the lowest rent per apartment. The Hebrews pay the highest average rent per room, $2.03, and the Irish the lowest, $1.47. The average rent per person ranges from $1.84 paid by the Slovaks to $3.10 paid by the English.

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The range in monthly rents paid for apartments is indicated in the following table which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment:

TABLE 38.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Total foreign born

155

.6

56.8

9.59

16.8

87.1

93.5

100.0

Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The above table shows that of 174 households paying rent and reporting the amount, 0.6 per cent pay under $5 rent per month per apartment; 16.1 per cent pay under $7.50; 54 per cent pay under $10; 86.8 per cent pay under $12.50; 92.5 per cent pay under $15; and 100 per cent pay under $20 rent per month per apartment. The households whose heads are foreign-born show the same percentage as that exhibited in the total for all households concerning whom information was secured paying under $5 rent per month per apartment. The households of foreign birth show a slightly higher percentage than that of the total number of households studied paying under $7.50, under $10, under $12.50, and under $15 rent per month per apartment. The French households show 3.6 per cent paying under $5 rent per month per apartment, as contrasted with no Hebrew, South Italian, and Slovak households paying under this amount. The Slovak households show by far the highest percentage paying under $7.50, and the Hebrew households the lowest per centage paying under this amount of rent per month per apartment. The households whose heads are Slovaks show 100 per cent paying under $10 rent per month per apartment. No French households pay over $12.50 rent per month per apartment, while over 85 per cent of the households, the heads of which are South Italians, and over 70 per cent of the Hebrew households pay under this amount. The Hebrew households alone show a certain proportion paying over $15 rent per month per apartment.

In the following table the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per room is shown, according to general nativity and race of head of household:

TABLE 39.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of a total of 174 households paying rent and reporting amount in the above table 64.4 per cent pay from $1 to $2, 97.7 per cent pay under $3, and none pay as high as $4 per month per room. Of the foreign-born races none pay as low as $1, none pay as high as $4; the Hebrew and South Italian are the only ones showing a proportion paying $3 or over, and the French show the largest and the Hebrew the smallest proportion paying under $2.

The real situation relative to congestion is set forth in the following table, which indicates the extent of crowding within the households by showing, according to general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per person:

TABLE 40.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person, by general nativity and race of head of household.

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting.. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Total foreign-born..

155

0

34.2

66.5

81.9

2.27

• Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Upon referring to the foregoing table it is seen that, of 174 households paying rent and reporting amount, 30.5 per cent pay from $1 to $2; 64.9 per cent under $3, and 79.9 per cent under $4 per month per person. Of the several foreign-born races not one reports a proportion paying under $1; each shows between 25 and 50 per cent paying under $2; less than 75 per cent of each, except the Slovak, pays under $3, and over 10 per cent of each, except the Slovak, $4 or over per person.

BOARDERS AND LODGERS.

The practice of the wives of the glove-manufacturing employees of supplementing the earnings of their husbands by taking boarders or lodgers into the home has been discussed in a preceding chapter. The extent of this practice and its bearing upon living conditions are considered in the two following tables, the first of which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers:

TABLE 41.-Number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.]

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Upon referring to the above table it is seen that of the 262 households studied 30, or 11.5 per cent, keep boarders and lodgers. The native-born show a slightly larger proportion than the foreign-born who keep boarders or lodgers. Of the several foreign-born races the English, German, and Hebrew show approximately 20 per cent, while no other given race shows higher than 7.5 per cent of its households keeping boarders or lodgers.

In the table following the average number of boarders or lodgers per household is exhibited according to general nativity and race of head of household. The averages are based (1) on the total number of households, and (2) on the number of households having boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 42.-Average number of boarders or lodgers per household, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.]

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Of the 262 households studied in the foregoing table there is an average of 0.15 boarders or lodgers in each, and an average of 1.27 in the 30 households keeping boarders or lodgers. The native-born show a slightly higher average number than the foreign-born. Of the foreign-born races the English show the highest and the Irish the lowest average number.

SIZE OF APARTMENTS OCCUPIED.

In the following table the percentage of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms is shown by general nativity and race of head of household:

TABLE 43.-Per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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