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CHAPTER IV.

WORKING CONDITIONS.

Regularity of employment–The immigrant and organized labor—[Text Tables 35

and 36 and General Table 22).

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT.

The regularity of employment offered and the relative industriousness of the employees of the several races and nativity groups is indicated by the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the months worked during the past year, by males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over and who were employed away from home. The term “past year” in this

" connection means the twelve months immediately preceding the collection of the data.

TABLE 35.- Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed

away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of a total of 336 individuals reporting in the above table, 80.4 per cent worked the entire year, 92.6 per cent worked nine months or over; 98.8 per cent worked six months or over, and 100 per cent worked three months or over. A comparison of the nativity groups shows that a larger proportion of the native-born whites of native father than of either the native-born of foreign parentage or foreignborn have worked during the entire past year, while the native whites born of native father show the largest proportion and the native-born of foreign parentage the smallest proportion who have worked nine months or over and six months or over. Of the several foreign-born races only the German and South Italian show a proportion who have not worked six months or over; the Hebrew is the only one showing the entire number who have worked nine months or over, and no race shows that its entire number worked during the full year.

THE IMMIGRANT AND ORGANIZED LABOR.

The extent to which employees are members of labor organizations is set forth in the table submitted below, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the affiliation with trade unions of males in the households studied who were 21 years of age or over and who were working for wages.

TABLE 36.- Affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over working for

wages, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Of a total of 308 males reporting complete data in the above table only 1.3 per cent, composed entirely of foreign-born persons, were affiliated with trade unions.

CHAPTER V.

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

Rent in its relation to standard of living-Boarders and lodgers-Size of apartments

occupied—Size of households studied-Congestion—[Text Tables 37 to 49 and General Tables 23 to 34.)

RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING.

Because of congestion within the households arising from the tendency to crowd the apartments in order to reduce the per capita rent outlay, the monthly rent payments of the households, the heads of which are employed in the glove-manufacturing industry, are chiefly significant in their bearing upon the standards of living. The first table presented in this connection, which immediately follows, shows, according to general nativity and race of head of household, the average monthly rent paid per apartment, per room. and per person. TABLE 37.--Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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Of a total of 174 households paying rent and reporting amount, it is seen that the average rent per apartment is $9.72; per room, $1.78; and per person, $2.35. The foreign-born show a lower average rent per apartment and per person than do the native-born, each paying the same rent per room.

Of the several foreign-born races the English, followed by the Hebrew and German, pays the highest, and the Slovak, preceded by the French and Irish, the lowest rent per apartment. The Hebrews pay the highest average rent per room, $2.03, and the Irish the lowest, $1.47. The average rent per person ranges from $1.84 paid by the Slovaks to $3.10 paid by the English.

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The range in monthly rents paid for apartments is indicated in the following table which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment: TABLE 38.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Not computed, owing to small number involved. The above table shows that of 174 households paying rent and reporting the amount, 0.6 per cent pay under $5 rent per month per apartment; 16.1 per cent pay under $7.50; 54 per cent pay under $10; 86.8 per cent pay under $12.50; 92.5 per cent pay under $15; and' 100 per cent pay under $20 rent per month per apartment. The households whose heads are foreign-born show the same percentage as that exhibited in the total for all households concerning whom information was secured paying under $5 rent per month per apartment. The households of foreign birth show a slightly higher percentage than that of the total number of households studied

paying under $7.50, under $10, under $12.50, and under $15 rent per month per apartment. The French households show 3.6 per cent paying under $5 rent per month per apartment, as contrasted with no Hebrew, South Italian, and Slovak households paying under this amount. The Slovak households show by far the highest percentage paying under $7.50, and the Hebrew households the lowest per centage paying under this amount of rent per month per apartment. The households whose heads are Slovaks show 100

per

cent paying under $10 rent per month per apartment. No French households pay over $12.50 rent per month per apartment, while over 85 per cent of the households, the heads of which are South Italians, and over 70 per cent of the Hebrew households pay under this amount. The Hebrew households alone show a certain proportion paying over $15 rent per month per apartment.

In the following table the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per room is shown, according to general nativity and race of head of household: TABLE 39.—Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room, by

general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of a total of 174 households paying rent and reporting amount in the above table 64.4 per cent pay from $1 to $2, 97.7 per cent pay under $3, and none pay as high as $4 per month per room.

Of the foreign-born races none pay as low as $1, none pay as high as $4; the Hebrew and South Italian are the only ones showing a proportion paying $3 or over, and the French show the largest and the Hebrew the smallest proportion paying under $2.

The real situation relative to congestion is set forth in the following table, which indicates the extent of crowding within the households by showing, according to general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per person: Table 40.—Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person, by

general nativity and race of head of household. (This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Number

Per cent payingof house

holds Average paying, rent per rent and person. Under $1. Under $2. Under $3. Under $4. reporting amount.

Foreign-born:

French
Hebrew
Italian, South.
Slovak..

Grand total...
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born..

* Not computed, owing to small number involved.

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