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boarders or lodgers where the earnings of husband are $600 or over. Of the foreign-born races, South Italians show a very high percentage of wives having employment or keeping boarders or lodgers when contrasted with the other races given in the table, while Irish show small proportions of wives contributing to the family fund.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The sources of family income are set forth in detail in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, percentage of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources:

TABLE 32.-Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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a For selection of families, see p. 842.

The above table shows the highest percentage of families having income from the earnings of husband, the next greatest source of income being from the earnings of wife. A considerably smaller proportion of families have an income from contributions of children, while smaller proportions have incomes from payments of boarders or lodgers and from other sources. Foreign-born show a higher percentage of families having an income from the earnings of husband and wife and from contributions of children than native-born of native father, the latter showing a higher percentage of families having an income from other sources and from payments of boarders or lodgers than foreign-born. Irish and Hebrews show all families having an income from the earnings of husband, while Germans alone show less than 90 per cent having an income from this source. Hebrews and Irish show very small percentages having an income from earnings of wife when compared with the other races. Germans show the highest percentage of families having an income from contributions of children and Hebrews the highest percentage of families having an income from payments of boarders or lodgers, Irish and French

showing very small proportions deriving an income from this source. Germans and Irish show the highest percentage having an income from other sources and South Italians the lowest.

In the following table, also, the sources of family income in detail are indicated, but each source specified in exclusion of all other sources; in other words, the proportion of families under each. designated source which have their entire income from that source:

TABLE 33.-Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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a For selection of families, see p. 842.

The preceding table shows the greatest percentage of families having their entire income from husband and wife, from husband, and from sources or combinations of sources not before specified. The proportions of families having an entire income from wife, children, and from children and boarders or lodgers is insignificant. Hebrews show the highest percentage deriving their entire income from husband, South Italians the highest percentage deriving entire income from husband and wife, Irish the highest percentage deriving entire income from husband and children, and Germans the highest percentage deriving their entire income from sources or combination of sources not before specified.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of total yearly income from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, indicating the extent to which the families studied are dependent on the designated sources of income.

TABLE 34.-Per cent of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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a For selection of families, see p. 842.

The preceding table shows the highest percentage of the total yearly income to be derived from earnings of husband, the next greatest proportion comes from contributions of children, while the earnings of wife show the next highest percentage of total income. The percentage of the total income from payments of boarders or lodgers and from other sources is very small. Native-born of native father show a higher percentage of total yearly income from earnings of husband and wife and from payments of boarders or lodgers than foreign-born, the latter showing a higher percentage of total income from contributions of children and from other sources than do nativeborn of native father. Irish report the highest percentage of total income from earnings of husband, followed by Hebrews, French, Germans, and South Italians, in the order named. Irish also show the lowest percentage of total income from earnings of wife. South Italians show the highest percentage of total income from earnings of wife and from contributions of children.

CHAPTER IV.

WORKING CONDITIONS.

Regularity of employment-The immigrant and organized labor-[Text Tables 35 and 36 and General Table 22].

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT.

The regularity of employment offered and the relative industriousness of the employees of the several races and nativity groups is indicated by the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the months worked during the past year, by males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over and who were employed away from home. The term "past year" in this connection means the twelve months immediately preceding the collection of the data.

TABLE 35.-Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of a total of 336 individuals reporting in the above table, 80.4 per cent worked the entire year, 92.6 per cent worked nine months or over; 98.8 per cent worked six months or over, and 100 per cent worked three months or over. A comparison of the nativity groups shows that a larger proportion of the native-born whites of native father than of either the native-born of foreign parentage or foreignborn have worked during the entire past year, while the native whites born of native father show the largest proportion and the native-born of foreign parentage the smallest proportion who have worked nine

months or over and six months or over. Of the several foreign-born races only the German and South Italian show a proportion who have not worked six months or over; the Hebrew is the only one showing the entire number who have worked nine months or over, and no race shows that its entire number worked during the full year.

THE IMMIGRANT AND ORGANIZED LABOR.

The extent to which employees are members of labor organizations is set forth in the table submitted below, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the affiliation with trade unions of males in the households studied who were 21 years of age or over and who were working for wages.

Table 36.—Affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over working for wages, by general nativity and race of individual.

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of a total of 308 males reporting complete data in the above table only 1.3 per cent, composed entirely of foreign-born persons, were affiliated with trade unions.

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