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ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the yearly earnings of males 18 years of age or over.

TABLE 25.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Total foreign-born..

252

573
638

222

10

13

24

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18

30

97

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6.5 32.3

58.1

100.0

3.2

20.6 47.6

100.0

.8 9.5 38.5

95.6

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of a total of 315 individuals earning an average of $625 per annum, 1.3 per cent earn under $200, 11.7 per cent under $400, 40.3 per cent under $600, 96.5 per cent under $1,000, and 3.5 per cent $1,000 or over. No native-born whites earn under $200 or $1,000 or over; no native-born of foreign parentage earn $1,000 or over, while 4.4 per cent of the foreign-born earn $1,000 or over. The German and South Italian are the only races showing a proportion earning under $200. The South Italians also show the largest proportion earning under $400 and under $600. Each race, except the French and Slovak, shows a certain proportion earning $1,000 or over, the Irish showing the largest and the German the smallest proportion.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FEMALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The contributions to the family income from the females 18 years of age or over in the households studied may be seen from the following

table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the yearly earnings of females 18 years of age or over, working for wages:

TABLE 26.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

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TABLE 27.—Per cent of females 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount (approximate) per year, by general nativity.

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Of a total of 173 females earning an average of $266 per annum, 37.6 per cent earn under $200; 63 per cent under $300; 85.5 per cent under $400; 89.6 per cent under $500; and 10.4 per cent $500 or over. Among the nativity groups it is seen that the foreign-born shows the largest proportion earning under each specified amount except under $500, where the native-born of foreign father show the largest proportion. The native-born of native father show the smallest proportion earning under $400 and under $500.

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ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

The annual income of families whose heads were employed in the glove-manufacturing industry, together with the several sources of family income and their relative importance, is indicated by the series of tables next presented. The first table submitted in this connection shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having a total yearly income of each specified

amount.

TABLE 28.-Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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a For selection of families, see p. 842.

The preceding table shows the average yearly income of 230 selected families to be $904. The percentage of families having an income of under $300 and under $500 is very small; 41.7 per cent have an income of under $750, 74.3 per cent under $1,000, and 93.9 per cent of families have an income of under $1,500. Foreign-born show a considerably higher average yearly income than native-born of native father, the latter showing a higher percentage than foreignborn, having an income under each specified amount except in the groups under $300 and under $1,000. South Italians show a very much higher percentage of families having an income of under $500 than any of the races given, and this race also shows a small proportion of families having a yearly income of under $300. Every foreignborn race shows a higher average yearly income than does the group native-born of native father. Hebrews and Germans report substantially higher yearly incomes, followed by South Italians, Irish, and French in the order mentioned, the last-named race showing only a slightly higher average yearly income than native-born of native father.

WIVES AT WORK.

The extent to which wives engage in occupations outside of the home in order to supplement the earnings of the husbands is indicated by the following table. This table shows the wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family:

TABLE 29.-Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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a For selection of families, see p. 842.

b Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The above table, compiled from data secured from 230 selected families, shows that 45.6 per cent of wives are at work, their average earnings being $217 per year. The percentage of foreign-born wives who work is considerably higher than that of wives who are nativeborn of native father. Of the foreign-born races, South Italians show a very high percentage of wives at work. Germans and French also show considerable proportions when contrasted with the percentage of Hebrews and Irish wives who are working. German wives at work show the highest average yearly earnings, followed closely by French, South Italian wives showing the lowest average yearly earnings of wives at work.

RELATION BETWEEN THE EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

The extent to which the wives of the families studied supplement the earnings of their husbands by taking boarders or lodgers into the home is shown in the table following, according to yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

TABLE 30.-Number of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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a For selection of families, see p. 842. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.

This column includes 1 family in which husband's earnings are reported as "none."

TABLE 31.-Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see p. 842. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.]

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French.

German.

၉၉

58.4

40.0

45.7

60.0

57.9

61.5

Hebrew.

28.6

33.3

32.4

Irish.

(b)

(b)

12.5

10.3

Italian, South..

Grand total..

Total native-born.

87.5

76.5

91.7

83.8

73.7

54.8

46.0

50.9

(b)

37.5

42.9

39.1

Total foreign-born..

77.8

57.4

46.3

52.3

a This column includes 1 family in which husband's earnings are reported as "none."
Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The preceding table shows that 50.9 per cent of wives have employment or keep boarders or lodgers. Where the earnings of the husband are under $400, 73.7 per cent of wives are thus employed. Where earnings are from $400 to $600, 54.8 per cent of wives contribute to the family fund; while 46 per cent of wives are working or keeping

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