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The foregoing table shows that 71.6 per cent of the females reporting were without occupation before coming to the United States; of those who were working 5 per cent were farm laborers, 2 per cent were in domestic service, 14.4 per cent were in the glove industry, 4 per cent were in sewing and embroidering, and 2.5 per cent were in other occupations. Only an insignificant percentage were working without wages before coming to this country. Of the foreign-born races Hebrews show the highest percentage without occupation before coming to the United States, Slovaks show considerable proportions who were farm laborers, while Germans, South Italians, and French show the greatest proportion who were formerly employed in the glove industry.

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF MALES AT THE PRESENT TIME IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the general occupation of males 16 years of age or over in the households studied:

TABLE 19.-General occupation of males 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The above table shows that of a total of 369 males reporting complete data by far the largest proportion, or 90.8 per cent, are employed in the glove-manufacturing industry, 6 per cent being otherwise employed, 1.1 per cent at home, and 2.2 per cent at school. The foreign-born show a larger proportion than the native-born of native father a group which in turn shows a larger proportion than the native-born of foreign father who are employed in the industry under study. The native-born of foreign father report a considerably larger proportion than either the native-born of native father or the foreign-born who are otherwise employed. From this it is clear that the second generation are inclined to seek employment in industries other than that in which their fathers were employed.

The foreign-born report comparatively small proportions at home. and at school-the native-born whites showing the largest proportion at home and the native-born of foreign father the largest proportion at school. Of the several foreign-born races the English, Hebrew, and Slovak are the only ones showing a proportion employed other than in the glove-manufacturing industry, the French and South Italians are the only ones showing a proportion at home, and the French and Hebrews are the only ones showing a proportion at school, all these proportions being comparatively small.

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF FEMALES AT THE PRESENT TIME IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The table which follows shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the general occupation of females 16 years of age or over in the households studied:

TABLE 20.-General occupation of females 16 years of age or over, by general nativity

and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all

Per cent

races.]

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Total foreign born.

245

55.9

.4

.0

42.9

Upon referring to the above table it is seen that 53.8 per cent of the 346 females studied are employed in the glove-manufacturing industry, less than 2 per cent being shown in either of the other occupations, while 42.8 per cent are at home. The foreign-born group shows a larger proportion than the native-born of either native or foreign father employed in the industry under study, while the native-born whites show a larger proportion than either the foreign-born or those who were native-born of foreign father who are at home. Of the several foreign races less than 5 per cent of a given race are other than at home or employed in this industry, while no race reports a proportion at school.

WEEKLY EARNINGS.

The average amount and the range in amount of weekly earnings of employees of the glove-manufacturing industry are set forth in the

series of tables next presented. The first table of the series, which immediately follows, shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week:

TABLE 21.-Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified * amount per week, by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

This table contains information from 296 male employees, of which number 1 per cent earn less than $5; 91.9 per cent earn $7.50 or over; 81.1 per cent, $10 or over; 33.4 per cent, $12.50 or over; 26.7 per cent, $15 or over; 8.1 per cent, $17.50 or over; and 2.7 per cent as high as $20 or over per week. The foreign-born show a larger proportion than native-born of native father earning each specified

amount.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of foreign-born female employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week:

TABLE 22.—Per cent of female employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Total foreign-born...

280

228

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$6.37

96. 1

66.7

36.7

13.3

6.46

95.4

69.6

37.9

13.9

6.88

93.2

81.8

47.7

15.9

6.44

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6.55

36.5

This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Of 280 female employees 18 years of age or over, the preceding table shows that 4.6 per cent of them earn under $2.50; 69.6 per cent, $5 or over; 37.9 per cent, $7.50 or over; and 13.9 per cent, $10 or over a week. The native-born of native father show the largest, and the native-born of foreign father the smallest proportion earning $2.50 or over, while the native-born of foreign father show the largest, and the foreign-born the smallest proportion earning each other specified amount, except $10 or over, where the native-born of native father show the smallest proportion.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

The extent to which the male heads of families studied were regularly employed, together with their average annual earnings, is set forth in the table next presented, which shows, by general nativity and race, the proportion of the husbands in the households studied who are at work:

TABLE 23.-Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.

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27 203

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25

100.0

$647

15

(b)

734

35

100.0

592

26

100.0

685

34

100.0

729

29

100.0

724

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Total foreign-born.

99.5

a For selection of families, see p. 842.

b Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Upon referring to the above table it is seen that of the 220 husbands, in the 230 families selected for study, 219, or 99.5 per cent, are at work and earn an average of $650 per annum. While the native-born, compared with the foreign-born, show a slightly higher proportion of husbands at work, at the same time they show slightly lower earnings. Of the several foreign-born races the South Italian is the only one showing a proportion of husbands who are idle. The average earnings range from $734, as shown by the English, to $532, as shown by the Slovaks.

In the following table the range in the yearly earnings of male heads of families is shown according to general nativity and race of individual:

TABLE 24.-Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only male heads of selected families. For selection of families, see p. 842.]

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The above table shows the average earnings per year of male heads of families to be $650, the greatest proportion earning under $800, an insignificant percentage under $200, and a very small proportion under $400. Foreign-born persons show slightly higher average yearly earnings than do native-born of native father, foreign-born reporting a higher percentage than native-born of native father earning under $200, under $400, and under $600. Native-born of native father show a higher per cent than foreign-born earning under $800 and under $1,000. English, Hebrews, Irish, and Germans show higher average yearly earnings than native-born of native father. A small percentage of Germans and South Italians earn under $200 per year, no other races showing any individuals earning under this amount. All the races shown in the table except Irish have over 90 per cent of male heads of families earning under $1,000 per year.

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