Lapas attēli
PDF
ePub
[ocr errors]

both parents born abroad those of British, German, and Irish parentage had, in the order mentioned, the largest and those of Scandinavian and Polish the smallest representation, while in the United States as a whole employees of German, British, and Irish parentage had, in the order mentioned, the largest and those of Austro-Hungarian and Russian parentage the smallest representation. There were 114 employees whose parents were born in unspecified foreign countries, in New York, and 196 in the United States. Employees of Italian parentage were reported to the number of 157 in New York and 238 for the country as a whole.

It appears from the above table that natives of southern and eastern Europe began to find employment in the glove industry at some time between 1890 and 1900. În 1900, while a very large proportion of all foreign-born employees were of the races of old immigration, a considerable number of Italian, Austro-Hungarian, and Russian race were reported.

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN

EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS.

An additional insight into the racial movements to the industry may be had from the following series of tables, which exhibit the period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households. Length of residence in this country and period of employment in the glove factories are not necessarily identical, but they closely approximate one another. The table first submitted which follows below shows, by sex and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees who had been in the United States each specified number of years. Table 11.Per cent of foreign-born em ployees in the United States under 1 year, 1 year,

2 years, etc., by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is

made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

[blocks in formation]

English.
Total.

5.9
3.6

102 279

1.0
2.2

8.8
7.5

2.9
9.7

2.9
6.1

8.8
15.1

18.6
16.8

13.7
14.0

37.3
25.1

2.2

The preceding table shows that the greatest proportion of the total number of employees reporting have been in the United States over five years, 3.6 per cent have been in here under one year, per cent have been here one year, 7.5 per cent two years, 9.7 per cent three years, 6.1 per cent have been here four years. The males show 4.9 per cent with a residence less than one year; no females have been here so short a time. Little difference is observed between the proportions of males and females with a residence of one and two years. The females show a higher percentage than do the males in the three-year group, but the latter show greater proportions with a residence of four years.

The following table condenses somewhat the data of the tabulation preceding, by combining into one group all employees who had been in the United States less than five years:

TABLE 12.—Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified

number of years, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is

made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

MALE.

[blocks in formation]

The preceding table shows that of 279 foreign-born employees reporting, 29 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 15.1 per cent from five to nine years, 16.8 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 14 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, and 25.1 per cent twenty years or over. The English report somewhat smaller percentages who have a residence of under five years, from five to nine years, and from fifteen to nineteen years than are shown by the totals for all foreign-born employees. Males show a higher percentage than do the females for each specified length of residence, except in the column showing persons who have been in the United States from ten to fourteen years.

The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons in the households studied who had been in the United States each specified number of years:

Table 13.-Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number

of years, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table

includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

[blocks in formation]

Of a total of 603 individuals, 24.2 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 49.3 per cent under ten years, and 82.1 per cent under twenty years.

The Hebrews show the largest proportion but the Irish report none with a period of residence under five years, the same races showing the largest and smallest proportions, respectively, with a period of residence under ten years. The Slovak, followed by the South Italian and Hebrew, reports the smallest and the Irish, preceded by the German and French, the largest proportion with a period of residence of twenty years or

more.

RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.

The racial composition of the operating forces of the industry at the present time is indicated by the table following, which shows, by sex, the number and percentage of employees of each race for whom information was secured.

TABLE 14.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity

and race.

[blocks in formation]
[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

Native-born of native father:

White...

Negro...
Native-born of foreign father, by country
of birth of father:

Austria-Hungary.
Denmark
England.
France..
Germany.
Ireland..
Italy.
Roumania.
Russia.
Scotland.
Spain.

Sweden.
Foreign-born, by race:

Bohemain and Moravian.
Canadian, French..
Canadian, Other..
Croatian.
Danish..
English.
French..
German.
Hebrew, Russian.
Hebrew, Other
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Magyar..
Norwegian..
Polish..
Roumania.
Russian..
Scotch.
Slovak.
Slovenian
Swedish..
Syrian....

Grand total..

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]

1

29

[blocks in formation]

10

83 12 17 35 4 4 5 32 1

[blocks in formation]

1

1

2

.2

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

Information was secured for a total of 908 persons in the glovemanufacturing industry, the sexes reporting in equal number. Of the males the largest proportion are foreign-born, followed by native whites born of native father and native-born of foreign father, in the order named, while the entire proportion of native-born negroes are females. Of the females the largest proportion are white nativeborn of native father, followed by the foreign-born and the nativeborn of foreign father in the order named, and the smallest proportion are native-born negroes. The proportion of foreign-born males, by race, ranges from 18.3 per cent, as shown by the English, to none, as shown by the Norwegian, Scotch, Slovak, and Slovenian, while the proportion of females ranges from 6.4 per cent, as shown by the English, to none, as shown by the French Canadian, Danish, Hebrew other than Russian, Magyar, Roumanian, and Syrian.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied—General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied-General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied—Weekly earningsAnnual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family income_Wives at workRelation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers-Sources of family income-Relative importance of the different sources of family income—[Text Tables 15 to 34 and General Tables 6 to 21).

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSE

HOLDS STUDIED.

Before entering into a discussion of the economic status of employees of the glove-manufacturing industry, the industrial condition while abroad of foreign-born employees and members of their households is set forth. The first table submitted in this connection shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

TABLE 15.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

The preceding table shows 6.4 per cent of the total number of males reporting without occupation before coming to the United States, 74.9 per cent were working for wages, 11.1 per cent were working without wages, and 7.7 per cent were working for profit. Hebrews.

« iepriekšējāTurpināt »