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RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of Immigration-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households-Racial classification of employees at the present time [Text Tables 8 to 14 and General Tables 4 and 5].

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

Data showing in detail the history of immigration to the glovemaking industry is, unfortunately, unavailable. The returns of the United States Bureau of the Census show, however, the general racial composition of the working force at certain periods. From the census figures it is possible to determine the movement of immigration to the industry.

The following table classifies, according to country of birth, the employees of the glove-manufacturing industry in 1880:

TABLE 8.-Number of glove workers in the United States, by country of birth, 1880. [Compiled from United States Census Report, Occupations, 1880.]

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The census for 1880 does not give the figures by States. In the country as a whole there were, at the date of the census, 4,511 glove Workers. Of these 3,667 were native-born. Among the foreign-born employees, persons born in Great Britain, in Germany, and in Ireland had, in the order mentioned, the largest representation. There were a number of natives of Canada and several natives of Sweden and Norway reported, while 111 workers were classified under the caption "Other countries." It is clear from this table that, in 1880, the proportion of southern and eastern European laborers employed in this industry must have been small.

In the following table the employees of the industry in 1890 are classified according to general nativity and country of birth:

TABLE 9.-Number of glove workers in the United States, by general nativity and country of birth, 1890.

[Compiled from United States Census Report, Occupations, 1890.]

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In the census of 1890, as in the one which preceded it, data are given for the United States as a whole, but not for the several States. It will be noted that the classification is somewhat more complete than in the preceding census, native-born white employees being classified according to parentage. In 1890 there were 6,416 glove-manufacturing employees in the United States. Of these 3,567 were native whites of native parents, 1,571 were native whites of foreign parents, 1,266 were foreign-born whites, and 12 were colored persons of unspecified nativity. Among the foreign-born employees persons of British and German nativity had, in the order mentioned, the largest representation. The Irish occupied third place, and there were a number of persons of Canadian, Swedish, Norwegian, and Danish birth, as well as 199 persons born in foreign countries not specified. In this census, as in that of 1880, the native-born employees considerably outnumbered the foreign-born employees, and the proportion of workers of the races of southern and eastern Europe was, clearly, very small. The next table is compiled from the returns of the census of 1900.

TABLE 10.-Number of glove workers in the United States and New York State, by general nativity and country of birth of parents, 1900.

[Compiled from United States Census Report, Occupations, 1900.]

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In the above table data are presented for the State of New York and for the United States. The classification is somewhat different from that of the preceding table. Instead of classifying foreign-born employees by country of birth, as did the censuses of 1880 and 1890, the census of 1900 classifies all employees by country of birth of parents and by general nativity. There were, in 1900, 8,320 glove workers in New York and 12,276 in the United States. In New York 5,346 employees were native whites of native parents, 1,593 were native whites of foreign parents, and 1,369 were foreign-born whites, while in the United States 6,417 employees were native whites of native parents, 3,383 were native whites of foreign parents, and 2,414 were foreign-born whites. There were 12 colored employees in New York as compared with 62 for the country as a whole. As in the two preceding tables the native-born employees greatly outnumber the foreign-born employees. The proportion of foreign-born employees was somewhat larger for the country as a whole than for the State of New York. In New York among employees having one or

both parents born abroad those of British, German, and Irish parentage had, in the order mentioned, the largest and those of Scandinavian and Polish the smallest representation, while in the United States as a whole employees of German, British, and Irish parentage had, in the order mentioned, the largest and those of Austro-Hungarian and Russian parentage the smallest representation. There were 114 employees whose parents were born in unspecified foreign countries, in New York, and 196 in the United States. Employees of Italian parentage were reported to the number of 157 in New York and 238 for the country as a whole.

It appears from the above table that natives of southern and eastern Europe began to find employment in the glove industry at some time between 1890 and 1900. In 1900, while a very large proportion of all foreign-born employees were of the races of old immigration, a considerable number of Italian, Austro-Hungarian, and Russian race were reported.

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS.

An additional insight into the racial movements to the industry may be had from the following series of tables, which exhibit the period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households. Length of residence in this country and period of employment in the glove factories are not necessarily identical, but they closely approximate one another. The table first submitted which follows below shows, by sex and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

TABLE 11.-Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States under 1 year, 1 year, 2 years, etc., by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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English..
Total...

102

5.9 1.0 8.8 2.9 2.9 279 3.6 2.2 7.5 9.7 6.1

8.8

18.6 13.7 15. 1 16.8 14.0

37.3

25.1

The preceding table shows that the greatest proportion of the total number of employees reporting have been in the United States over five years, 3.6 per cent have been in here under one year, 2.2 per cent have been here one year, 7.5 per cent two years, 9.7 per cent three years, 6.1 per cent have been here four years. The males show 4.9 per cent with a residence less than one year; no females have been here so short a time. Little difference is observed between the proportions of males and females with a residence of one and two years. The females show a higher percentage than do the males in the three-year group, but the latter show greater proportions with a residence of four years.

The following table condenses somewhat the data of the tabulation preceding by combining into one group all employees who had been in the United States less than five years:

TABLE 12.-Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

English.
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21.6

8.8

18.6

102 279

13.7

37.3

29.0

15.1

16.8

14.0

25. 1

The preceding table shows that of 279 foreign-born employees reporting, 29 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 15.1 per cent from five to nine years, 16.8 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 14 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, and 25.1 per cent twenty years or over. The English report somewhat smaller percentages who have a residence of under five years, from five to nine years, and from fifteen to nineteen years than are shown by the totals for all foreign-born employees. Males show a higher percentage than do the females for each specified length of residence, except in the column showing persons who have been in the United States from ten to fourteen years.

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