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CHAPTER V.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Citizenship-Ability to speak English-[Text Tables 254 to 255 and General Tables

171 to 173].

CITIZENSHIP.

The extent to which foreign-born employees have acquired or manifested an interest in attaining citizenship is set forth in the following table, which shows, by race, the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to this country. TABLE 254.

Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

(By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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From the data presented in the above table it appears that of the 98 male employees for whom information was secured 45, or 45.9 per cent, are fully naturalized, and that 23 employees, or 23.5 per cent, have first papers only.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The following table shows, by sex and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races who were able to speak English:

Table 255.Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

(This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however,

is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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It appears from the data presented in the above table that 89.7 per cent of the foreign-born females for whom information was secured can speak English, as compared with 75.6 per cent of the males. This low percentage of persons able to speak English for males, as compared with females, is apparently very largely due to the fact that no Greek females were included in the report. Only

cent of the Greek males speak English. The proportion of English speaking Germans is noticeably higher in the case of the males than in the case of the females.

55.2 per

GENERAL TABLES.

1.- GENERAL SURVEY: TABLES 1-53.
II.—THE EAST: TABLES 54-159.
II.-THE MIDDLE WEST: TABLES 160-173.

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GENERALE XPLANATION OF TABLES.

Persons of native birth have been divided into two general groups and further subdivided under each of the two, as follows:

1. Native-born of native father.

Persons under this group are classified as White, Negro, Indian, Chinese, Hindu, Japanese, and Korean.

2. Native-born of foreign father.

Persons under this group are further classified according to race of father in all tables where the data were secured for households and according to country of birth of father in all tables where the data were secured for employees. Where classification is by race of father, the classification used for several years by the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization is followed.

Persons of foreign birth are classified according to race (or people). The classification of the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization is followed.

In the study of households information is presented -

1. By general nativity and race of the “individual" in all tables which show facts which are personal in their nature, such as English speaking, occupation, or conjugal condition.

2. By general nativity and race of “head of family” in tables concerned with family matters, for example, family income.

3. By general nativity and race of "head of household” in all tables dealing with living conditions, among which are tables showing the composition of the household and the number of persons per room and per sleeping room. The distinction which has been made throughout this study between “family" and "household" is dependent upon the use of the term “apartment."

An "apartment” is a room or rooms within which all the usual daily processes of living, namely, cooking, eating, and sleeping, are carried on by the occupants. According to this definition an apartment may be, for example, a whole house, or it may be a single room of what was originally intended as an apartment, or it may be a corner of a wareroom or the back of a storeroom partitioned off and set aside for household uses. Two or more groups of occupants with distinctly separate money interests frequently rent a number of rooms jointly, occupying certain rooms separately but sharing one or more, usually the kitchen, or kitchen and living room. Under these conditions neither the rooms used by the one group of occupants nor those used by the other can be considered an apartment, since the room used in common must in such case be considered a room in each apartment, and thus be counted twice. Where these conditions have been encountered, the entire number of rooms has been considered one apartment.

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