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It appears from the data presented in the foregoing table that 98.5 per cent of the male employees 14 and under 18 years of age for whom information was secured earn $2.50 or over per week; that 63.3 per cent earn $5 or over; that 21.8 per cent earn $7.50 or over; and that only 4.4 per cent earn $10 or over. The proportion of individuals earning $5 or over, $7.50 or over, and $10 or over per week, respectively, is largest for the foreign-born, second largest for the nativeborn of foreign father, and smallest for the native-born of native father.

The table next submitted shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of female employees 14 and under 18 years of age who were earning each specified amount each week:

TABLE 247.-Per cent of female employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each

specified amount per week, by general nativity and race.

*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of the female employees 14 and under 18 years of age for whom information was secured, 97.2 per cent earn $2.50 or over per week, 53.7 per cent $5 or over, 13.2 per cent $7.50 or over, and only 1.4 per cent $10 or over. The proportion of individuals earning $5 or over, $7.50 or over, and $10 or over per week, respectively, is larger for the native-born of foreign father than for the native-born of native father.

CHAPTER IV.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition-Visits abroad--Age classification of employees—[Text

Tables 248 to 253 and General Tables 166 to 170).

LITERACY.

The degree of literacy which prevails among the employees of the shoe manufacturing industry is set forth in the table next presented. It shows by general nativity and race of individual the percentage of employees who were able to read and the percentage who were able to read and write.

Table 248.—Per cent of employees who read and per cent who read and write, by sex and

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Of 7,398 employees investigated, 4,511 were males and 2,887 were females, 99.5 per cent of the total number reporting can read and 99.3 per cent can both read and write. Of the males 99.1 per cent can read and 99 per cent can both read and write, while of the females 99.9 per cent are able to read and 99.8 per cent can read and write. The employees who are native-born of foreign father show the highest percentage who can read and who can read and write, followed by the employees who are native-born whites of native father, each of these nativity groups showing over 99 per cent. The employees of foreign birth follow in somewhat smaller proportions. It is particularly noticeable that in each nativity group the percentage of females who can read and who can both read and write is higher than that of males having this ability. Of the employees whose fathers were born in Austria-Hungary and in Ireland, all can read and write; of those whose fathers were born in England and Germany, 100 per cent of the females of the first-mentioned race can read and write and 100 per cent of the females of the race last mentioned can read and in somewhat smaller proportions can both read and write. Of the male employees of these two races those whose fathers were born in Germany show a higher percentage who can read and write than those of English parentage. Among the foreign-born employees a greater degree of literacy is observed among the Germans than among the Greeks, the German employees showing a higher percentage of females who can read than of males, while the males show a greater proportion who can both read and write than females.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The following table shows, by sex and general nativity and race, the

percentage of employees 20 years of age or over who were in each conjugal condition:

TABLE 249.-Per cent of employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition, by

sex and general nativity and race.

DY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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TABLE 249.—Per cent of employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition, by

sex and general nativity and race—Continued.

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a

Of the 4,237 persons included in the preceding table, 55 per cent are single, 40.2 per cent married, and 4.8 per cent widowed. The nativeborn of foreign father shows a larger proportion than the native-born of native father, white, which in turn shows a larger proportion than the foreign-born, who are single. The position of the nativity groups is reversed with regard to those who are married. A comparison between the males and females shows that a considerably larger proportion of the latter are single and widows. This is true with regard to each nativity group.

The following table divides the totals of the table immediately preceding and shows, by sex, age groups, and by general nativity and race, the percentage of employees who were in each conjugal condition: TABLE 250.—Per cent of employees in each conjugal condition, by sex and age groups, and

by general nativity and race.

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(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 200 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

MALE.

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