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Table 241.--Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity

and race-Continued.

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Information was secured for 7,554 individuals. Of these, 16 per cent of the males and only 3.4 per cent of the females are foreignborn; 31 per cent of the males and 34.7 per cent of the females are native-born of foreign father, and 52 per cent of the males and 61.9 per cent of the females are native-born of native father, white. Only i per cent of the males and a fraction of a per cent of the females are native-born of native father, negro. The fathers of a very large proportion of the native-born of foreign father, both males and females, were born in Germany and the fathers of a somewhat smaller proportion in Ireland. The principal races of the foreign-born are, in the case of the males, the German, Greeks, Bohemians and Moravians, Poles, Russian Hebrews, North Italians, South Italians, and Roumanians, in the order mentioned, and in the case of the females the Germans, Irish, and Bohemians and Moravians, in the order mentioned.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States

Weekly earnings—[Text Tables 242 to 247 and General Tables 162 to 165].

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING

TO THE UNITED STATES.

In order that an intelligent conception may be had of the economic status of immigrant employees of the shoe manufacturing industry in the Middle West, it is necessary to set forth their industrial condition before emigrating from their native countries. Such an exhibit is also valuable in showing what training and experience foreign-born operatives in the shoe manufacturing industry had abroad in the same industry in which they are now employed. Consequently before entering into a discussion of their present economic status the following tables are submitted, which shows, by race, the proportion of foreignborn employees who were in each specified occupation before coming to the United States:

TABLE 242.-Occupation of foreign-born male employees before coming to the United

States, by race.

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TABLE 242.-Occupation of foreign-born male employees before coming to the United

States, by raceContinued.

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TABLE 243.-Occupation of foreign-born female employees before coming to the United

States, by race.

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The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of male employees 18 years of age or over who were earning each specified amount each week.

TABLE 244.-Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race. *

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

The preceding table shows that almost all male employees 18 years of age or over for whom information was secured earn $5 or over per week, 90.1 per cent earn $7.50 or over, 71 per cent earn $10 or over, 41.7

per cent earn $12.50 or over, 32.4 per cent earn $15 or over, 14.6 per cent earn $17.50 or over, 5.7 per cent earn $20 or over, and only 1.7 per cent earn $25 or over. It will be noted that the proportion of individuals earning each sum specified is considerably larger for the native-born of foreign father than for either the native-born of native father or the foreign-born. A larger proportion of the native-born of native father than of the foreign-born earn $7.50 or over, $10 or over, $12.50 or over, $20 or over, and $25 or over per week, respectively, while a larger proportion of the foreign-born than of the native-born of native father earn weekly $15 or over and $17.50 or over. As regards the foreign-born, the Germans show a considerably larger proportion earning each of the sums specified than do the Greeks.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of female employees 18 years of age or over who were earning each specified amount each week.

TABLE 245.

Per cent of female employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

General nativity and race.

Per cent earning each specified amount per week.
Number

Average
reporting earnings
complete
per week. $2.50 or $5 or over.

$7.50 or $10 or $15 or
data,
over.

over. over. over.

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This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

From the data presented in the above table it appears that of the female employees 18 years of age or over for whom information was secured almost all earn $2.50 or over per week, 91.9 per cent earn $5 or over, 57.7 per cent earn $7.50 or over, 20.5 per cent earn $10 or over, and 2.9 per cent earn $15 or over. The proportion of employees earning $5 or over, $7.50 or over, and $10 or over per week, respectively, is largest for the native-born of foreign father, second largest for the foreign-born, and smallest for the native-born of native father.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age who were earning each specified amount each week:

TABLE 246.-Per cent of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each speci

fied amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

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