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CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration to the boot and shoe manufacturing establishments of St. Louis-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees-Racial classification of employees at the present time [Text Tables 240 and 241 and General Table 161].

The racial movements of the principal States of the Middle West engaged in the manufacture of boots and shoes, so far as indicated by the federal census returns, by country of birth and parentage of foreign-born employees, have already been discussed. As further illustrative of the history of immigration to this geographical division of the industry, however, the racial displacements in the boot and shoe manufacturing establishments of St. Louis, the most representative center of the industry in the Middle West, may be briefly set forth.

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION TO THE BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS OF ST. LOUIS.

The manufacturing of shoes in St. Louis began nearly forty years ago. To establish the industry it was necessary to secure men as foremen who had had training and experience. New England at the time occupied the commanding position in this industry, and it was toward this section that St. Louis turned for well-trained men. The men secured were native whites, and these men, as foremen, together with local native whites and Germans and Irish, formed the working nucleus of what has become one of the most important industries in St. Louis to-day. As the industry expanded the more skilled of this force were employed by other companies or in other plants of the same company, in the same capacity as were those from New England. Only within the last ten years have the more recent immigrants to this country entered the industry in this particular section, of whom the first were Italians employed in 1900. This race was followed by the Bohemians and Poles in 1902, the Greek, Armenian, and a few Turks in 1904, and a small number of Swedes and Magyars in 1905. In the opinion of the officials of several companies, not over 16 per cent of the employees in this locality are of the more recent immigrant races. This proportion, when the large number of employees is considered, is a very small percentage. Moreover, a considerable proportion is of the second generation. From officials and employees long in the service of their respective companies it may be assumed that the races previously named are the only ones that have become a factor in operating the various plants. In St. Louis, as in other large cities where the various plants are so widely scattered, the racial make-up of each plant's force is governed almost entirely by its

location. By way of illustration, one plant is located in the heart of an Irish and German community, another in a Polish, and still another in a section of St. Louis where the Bohemians are quite strong. Wherever this preponderance of one race over another is found this race predominates over the others not so strongly represented in the various plants, the Americans being an exception. The more recent immigrants have entered, without exception, the unskilled occupations. Rare exceptions in the case of individuals have been noted. In this connection the Italian is more favorably commented on than the others. This is attributed to his knowledge of the needle and knife gained in his native country, where many of the race have worked as "cobblers." There are certain occupations requiring a little instruction that these people enter, but such should be termed specialized rather than skilled.

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN EMPLOYEES.

The character of recent and past immigration to the factories in the Middle West may be seen in the following table, which shows by sex and race the percentage of foreign-born employees who had been in the United States each specified number of years. Length of residence in this country and in the Middle West are not necessarily identical, but they closely approximate each other.

TABLE 240.-Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all foreign-born.]

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Of the two races studied in the preceding table, the German, being a race of older immigration, shows a smaller proportion who have been in the United States each specified number of years under 10, and a larger proportion having had a period of residence of each specified number of years above 15.

RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.

The racial composition of the operating forces of the factories in the Middle West is indicated by the table next presented, which sets forth by sex the number and percentage of employees of each race for whom information was secured.

TABLE 241.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race.

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a Less than 0.05 per cent.

TABLE 241.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and racee-Continued.

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Total foreign-born..

738

101

839

16.0

3.4

11.1

a Less than 0.05 per cent.

Information was secured for 7,554 individuals. Of these, 16 per cent of the males and only 3.4 per cent of the females are foreignborn; 31 per cent of the males and 34.7 per cent of the females are native-born of foreign father, and 52 per cent of the males and 61.9 per cent of the females are native-born of native father, white. Only 1 per cent of the males and a fraction of a per cent of the females are native-born of native father, negro. The fathers of a very large proportion of the native-born of foreign father, both males and females, were born in Germany and the fathers of a somewhat smaller proportion in Ireland. The principal races of the foreign-born are, in the case of the males, the German, Greeks, Bohemians and Moravians, Poles, Russian Hebrews, North Italians, South Italians, and Roumanians, in the order mentioned, and in the case of the females the Germans, Irish, and Bohemians and Moravians, in the order mentioned.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United StatesWeekly earnings─[Text Tables 242 to 247 and General Tables 162 to 165].

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING TO THE UNITED STATES.

In order that an intelligent conception may be had of the economic status of immigrant employees of the shoe manufacturing industry in the Middle West, it is necessary to set forth their industrial condition before emigrating from their native countries. Such an exhibit is also valuable in showing what training and experience foreign-born operatives in the shoe manufacturing industry had abroad in the same industry in which they are now employed. Consequently before entering into a discussion of their present economic status the following tables are submitted, which shows, by race, the proportion of foreignborn employees who were in each specified occupation before coming to the United States:

TABLE 242.-Occupation of foreign-born male employees before coming to the United States, by race.

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