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TABLE 231.—Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent

who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all

foreign-born.)

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Of the foreign-born persons in this locality 10 years of age or over for whom information was secured, 92.9 per cent of those who came here when under 14 years of age are able to read only, and 91.3 per cent are able to read and to write. Of the individuals who came to this country when 14 or over, 78.1 per cent are able to read only and 70.8 per cent are able to read and to write. All of the Hebrews, irrespective of age at the time of coming to the United States, are able to read and to write. Of the individuals who came here when under 14, a larger proportion of the French Canadians than of the South Italians are able to read and to write, while the proportion of individuals who came here when 14 or over who can read and write is much larger for the Armenians, French Canadians, Greeks, and Poles than for the South Italians and Lithuanians.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

In the next table presented the conjugal condition of persons in the households studied is shown, according to sex, age groups, and general nativity and race of individual.

48296°—VOL 12-11

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TABLE 232.—Per cent of persons in each conjugal condition, by sex and age groups, and by

general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The preceding table shows that of 746 persons reporting their conjugal condition, 26.1 per cent are single, 70.6 per cent are married, and 3.2 per cent are widowed. In the group of persons from 20 to 29 years

of
age

55.2 cent are married and .6 per cent are widowed. Of those who are from 30 to 44 years

of

age 85.6 per cent are married and 1.5 per cent are widowed. Of the persons who are 45 years of age or over 83.9 per cent are married and 14.5 per cent are widowed. In the groups of persons from 20 to 29 years of age and from 30 to 44 years of age those of foreign birth show a considerably higher percentage who are married than persons who are native-born of foreign father; the persons of foreign birth show also small proportions widowed in each of these groups, as contrasted with none of the native-born of foreign father who are widowed. In the group showing persons 20 years of age or over the persons of foreign birth show 72.5 per cent married and 3.5 per cent widowed, as contrasted with 34 per cent of the native-born of foreign father who are married and none who are widowed. Among persons of foreign birth the South Italians show the highest per cent married in the group of persons from 20 to 29 years of age and from 30 to 44 years of age. In the first named group the Poles show the lowest percentage married and the highest per cent widowed, and in the last-named group the Lithuanians show the lowest per cent married and the French Canadians the highest percentage widowed. Among the foreign-born persons who are 45 years of age and over the Hebrews show the highest percentage married, closely followed by the South Italians and the French Canadians, the latter showing the highest per cent widowed in this group. Of all the foreign-born persons 20 years of age or over the South Italians show the highest per cent married and the Poles the lowest per cent married. In this group the French Canadians show the highest percentage widowed and the Lithuanians no persons who are widowed. In the groups including persons from 20 to 29 years of age, from 30 to 44 years of age, and 20 years of age or over, the females show a considerably higher per cent married than the males, while in the group including persons 45 years of age or over the males show a considerably higher percentage of married persons than the females. In the groups from 20 to 29 years of age, 45 years of age or over, and 20 years of age or over, the females show a higher percentage widowed than the males, while in the group of persons from 30 to 44 years of age a slightly higher percentage of males than of females are widowed.

AGE CLASSIFICATION OF MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The table next presented shows, by sex, general nativity, and race of head of household, the percentage of persons in the households studied, within each specified age group.

Table 233.--Per cent of persons within each age group, by sex and general nativity and

race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

MALE.

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Of the 1,345 individuals in the households studied, more than 50 per cent were over 20 years of age. The proportion of children is higher among the foreign-born than among the native-born, while the percentage of older persons is much greater among the nativeborn. Among the races the only striking variations from the average are the proportion of French Canadians in the oldest group, the proportion of Lithuanians and Poles in the 20 to 29 year group, and of Armenians in the 30 to 44 year group.

CHAPTER XIX.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Ownership of homes—Citizenship-Ability to speak English-[Text Tables 234 to 238

and General Tables 154 to 159].

OWNERSHIP OF HOMES.

Home ownership by families, the heads of which were of foreign birth, may be considered as a strong indication of permanent settlement, and the facts in this connection relative to the families the heads of which were employed in the shoe-manufacturing industry in Community B are set forth in the following table, according to general nativity and race of head of family: TABLE 234.-Number and per cent of families owning home, by general nativity and race

of head of family.

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The above table shows that 14.6 per cent of the families in this locality for which information was secured own their homes. The proportion of families owning homes is larger for the native-born of native father than for the foreign-born. Among the foreign-born, the Hebrews and French Canadians, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the South Italians and Lithuanians the smallest proportion of families owning homes.

CITIZENSHIP.

The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the present political condition of foreign-born males, in the households studied, who had been in the United States five years or over, and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

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