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French Canadians the smallest proportion of households keeping boarders or lodgers.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of boarders or lodgers per household. The averages are computed (1) on the total number of households studied and (2) on the number keeping boarders or lodgers:

TABLE 222.-Average number of boarders or lodgers per household, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.]

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of the households of this locality for which information was secured, the average number of boarders or lodgers per household, based upon the total number of households, is 0.84, while the average number of boarders or lodgers per household, based on the number of households keeping boarders or lodgers, is 2.65. Among the foreignborn, the Poles, Lithuanians, and Armenians, in the order mentioned, have the largest average number of boarders or lodgers per household, based on the total number of households, and the Poles, Lithuanians, and South Italians, in the order mentioned, have the largest average number of boarders or lodgers per household, based on the total number of households keeping boarders or lodgers. Upon the basis of the total number of households, the average number of boarders or lodgers per household is much larger for the foreign-born than for the native-born of native father.

SIZE OF APARTMENTS OCCUPIED.

As regards the range in size of apartments occupied, the table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and percentage of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms.

TABLE 223.-Per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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A larger proportion of the total number of households occupy 4-room apartments than any other size. Five-room and 6-room apartments are also comparatively frequent. The most uncommon types are the 1-room and 2-room apartments. A 6-room apartment is occupied by 41.7 per cent of the native-born of native father. The latter class also has a comparatively large proportion having 7 rooms or more. The most general size of apartments occupied by the foreign-born households is 4 rooms. The French Canadian households, however, frequently occupy 5 and 6 room apartments.

SIZE OF HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The range in size of households is set forth in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and percentage of households of each specified number of persons.

TABLE 224.-Per cent of households of each specified number of persons, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the 247 households in the preceding table, the largest proportion, or 17.8 per cent, have 4 members-the proportion of households of 3, 6, 5, 7, and 8 persons following in the order named-and less than 10 per cent being households of each other specified number of persons. By a comparison between the households the heads of which are native-born of native father, white, and the households the heads of which are foreign-born, it is seen that, while the former shows their entire number to be households of from 2 to 6 persons, inclusive, the latter shows a certain proportion of households of each specified number of persons above 6. It is further seen that over 50 per cent of the households the heads of which are native whites born of native father are households of 2 and 3 persons, as contrasted with only 20.6 per cent of the households the heads of which are foreign-born. A greater degree of congestion is shown in the households the heads of which are Polish than in the households the heads of which are of any other given race-over 50 per cent of the households the heads of which are Polish containing 8 or more persons.

CONGESTION.

Although the tabulations and discussion preceding are primarily concerned with congestion, the series of tables next submitted set forth in a more direct way the degree of crowding within the households studied and its bearing upon living conditions. The first table, which follows below, shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons in apartments of each specified number of rooms. The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room:

TABLE 225.—Average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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24

3.25

0.56

1.42

5.94

1.28

2. 10

57

5.12

.94

1.79

12

5.08

1.07

1.79

5.44

1.19

2.31

10

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5.73

1.22

2.12

The average number of persons per apartment in the households in this locality for which information was secured is 5.49. The average number per room is 1.15 and the average number per sleeping room is 2.06. The foreign-born households have a considerably larger proportion of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room than have the households of the native-born of native father. Among the foreign-born the average number of persons per apartment is largest in the case of the Polish, Lithuanian, and Armenian households, in the order mentioned, and smallest in the case of the Greek and French Canadian households; the average number of persons per room is largest in the case of the Polish and Lithuanian households and smallest in the case of the Irish households, while the Polish, Lithuanian, Hebrew, and South Italian households, in the order mentioned, have the largest, and the Irish, Greek, and French Canadian households the smallest average number of persons per sleeping room. The range in number of persons per room, is shown in the table below, according to general nativity and race of head of household. TABLE 226.-Persons, per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The average number of persons per room is much larger in the foreign-born households than in the households of native-born of native father. Among the foreign-born the Poles and Lithuanians have the largest proportions of households having one or more - persons per room and two or more persons per room, respectively. The table next presented shows the range in the number of persons per sleeping room, according to general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 227.-Persons per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of the total number of households 62.8 per cent have 2 or more persons per sleeping room; 18.6 per cent have 3 or more. Figures for the total number of households closely reflect conditions in the foreign-born households. Of the households of the native whites of native father only 29.2 per cent have 2 or more persons per room, and none have 3 or more. It should be noted that congestion in sleeping rooms is less frequent in French Canadian households than in the households of any other race for which percentages are computed.

The effect of congestion within the households upon living arrangements may be seen from the final table of this series, which immediately follows. It shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and percentage of households regularly using for sleeping purposes all except each specified number of rooms.

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