Lapas attēli
PDF
ePub

born, while a larger proportion of the native-born of foreign father than of either the foreign-born or the native-born of native father worked six months or over. Among the foreign-born, the Hebrews, French Canadians, and Poles, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Lithuanians and South Italians the smallest proportion of individuals who worked twelve months; and the Hebrews, Armenians, and French Canadians have the largest and the North Italians and South Italians the smallest proportion of individuals who worked nine months or over, while the proportion of individuals who worked six months or over is largest for the Lithuanians, Hebrews, and French Canadians, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the Greeks and Armenians.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the months worked during the past year by females, in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over and who were employed away from home:

TABLE 215.— Months worked during the past year by females 16 years of age or ovet

employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

[blocks in formation]

The above table shows that of the females in this locality 16 years of age or over, for whom information was secured, the native-born of foreign father were, upon the average, employed a larger number of months during the year than were the foreign-born, and that of the latter the Hebrews were employed for a longer period than were the Poles.

THE IMMIGRANT AND ORGANIZED LABOR.

The extent to which the boot and shoe operatives are members of labor organizations may be seen in the table next presented. It shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the affiliation with trade unions of males, in the households studied, who were 21 years

of age or over and who were working for wages.

TABLE 216.Afiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over who are working

for wages, by general nativity and race of individual.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

From the percentages of the above table it appears that the proportion of individuals who are affiliated with trade unions is considerably larger among the foreign-born than among the native-born of native father. Among the foreign-born, the French Canadians, Greeks, and Armenians, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Poles, Hebrews, and South Italians the smallest proportion of individuals affiliated with trade unions.

CHAPTER XVII.

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

Rent in its relation to standard of living-Boarders and lodgers—Size of apartments

occupied-Size of households studied-Congestion—[Text Tables 217 to 228 and General Tables 136 to 148).

RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING.

The rent payments of the households, the heads of which were employed in the shoe manufacturing industry in Community B, are chiefly significant in their bearing upon standards of living because of congestion within the households arising from the practice, especially among households the heads of which were of recent immigration, to crowd their apartments in order to reduce the per capita outlay for rent. The first table submitted in this connection shows the average monthly rent payment per apartment per room and per person, according to general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 217.-Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household.

[blocks in formation]

In the households in this locality for which information was secured, the monthly rental paid averages $9.26 per apartment, $2.01 per room, and $1.67 per person. A considerably higher average monthly rental per apartment and per room, and a very much higher monthly rental per person is paid by the native-born households than by the foreign-born households. Among the foreign-born, the Hebrew, Greek, and French Canadian households pay the largest, and the Lithuanian and Polish households the smallest monthly rental per apartment, and the North Italian and Hebrew households pay the largest, and the Polish and French Canadian households the smallest average monthly rental per room, while the monthly rental per person is largest for the Greek, Hebrew, and French Canadian households, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the Lithuanian and Polish households.

The range of monthly rents for apartments is set forth in the following table which shows, by general nativity and race of head of house hold, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment. TABLE 218.- Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

[blocks in formation]

Of 208 households studied in this locality, 1.9 per cent pay under $5 rent per month per apartment, 20.2 per cent pay under $7.50, 60.6 per cent pay under $10, and 89.9 per cent pay under $12.50. The average rent per month per apartment for all households studied is $9.26.

The average rent in households the heads of which are native-born is $12.44 as contrasted with $8.97, which is the average monthly rent per apartment in households the heads of which are of foreign birth.

Among the households the heads of which are of foreign birth those whose heads are South Italians show the highest per cent paying under $5. The households the heads of which are Lithuanians follow, while no households the heads of which are Hebrews or French Canadians pay under the above-mentioned amount. The households the heads of which are South Italians show the highest per cent and those whose heads are Hebrews the lowest per cent paying under $7.50 and under $10. The households the heads of which are Lithuanians show the highest per cent and those whose heads are French Canadians the lowest per cent paying under $12.50 rent per month per apartment.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each speci

month

per room.

fied rent per

« iepriekšējāTurpināt »